An acronym is a pronounceable word formed from the first letter (or first few letters) of each word in a phrase or title. Sometimes, the newly combined letters create a new word that becomes a part of everyday language. An example of this is the acronym radar.
is an abbreviation for 'automated teller machine.'
Absent Without Official Leave (or Absent Without Leave)
|B.Y.O. or (BYOB)||often seen on invites to parties. It stands for "bring your own bottle / booze"; you are invited to a party, but you should bring your own drinks.|
|CIA||(Central Intelligence Agency)|
|CTA|| Call to action
Don't forget to include a CTA at the end of your blog.
|DVD||Digital Video Disk|
|DINK||Double Income no Kids|
|DIY (or D.I.Y)||
stands for "do it yourself". The term used by various communities that focus on people (called 'do-it-yourselfers' or 'DIYers') creating or repairing things for themselves without the help of paid professionals.
English as a Second Language
|ETA (not E.T.A)||
stands for "estimated time of arrival". It is the time when a form of transport (like a train or plane) is expected to arrive in a place.
|ETD||The opposite of ETA is ETD ("estimated time of departure").|
|i.e. / E.g.||
These two abbreviations are easily confused and both used when writing:
I.e. (or i.e. / I.E.) stands for "id est" (Latin for "That is (to say)" or "in other words").
(Federal Bureau of Investigation)
We saw MI:6 in the local IMAX theatre.
|GMO||Genetically modified organism
I only buy organic food free from GMOs.
|LASER||Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Our cat loves to chase a little red LASER beam.
|NATO||The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Let's hope NATO always remains intact.
|P.S (or PS)||
stand for "post script" and is used at the end of written letters to add extra information.
|RADAR||Radio Detection and Ranging
The police officer used RADAR to catch them speeding.
|SCUBA||Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
We gathered our SCUBA gear and dove into the Atlantic.
|SEO||Search engine optimization
Make sure your latest blog post has all the important SEO elements.
|SWAT||Special Weapons and Tactics
The Los Angeles Police Department dispatched their SWAT team.
Thomas A. Swift's Electric Rifle
|UNICEF||The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
UNICEF appointed a new chairman of the board.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
alert to injustice in society, especially racism
Order of colours in the rainbow, or visual spectrum:
(Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet)
Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain.
This is certainly one of the most popular mnemonic techniques.
Order of taxonomy in biology:
(Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)
Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach.
Order of geological time periods:
(Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Recent)
Cows Often Sit Down Carefully. Perhaps Their Joints Creak?
Persistent Early Oiling Might Prevent Painful Rheumatism.
Order of Mohs hardness scale, from 1 to 10:
(Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase feldspar, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond)
Toronto Girls Can Flirt, And Other Queer Things Can Do.
The order of sharps in music, called the "circle of fifths":
(F, C, G, D, A, E, B)
Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle.
And in reverse for flat keys the mnemonic can be neatly reversed:
Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father.
The notes represented by the lines on the treble clef stave (bottom to top):
(E, G, B, D, F)
Every Good Boy Deserves Favour.
And the notes represented by the spaces between the lines:
(F, A, C, E)
Furry Animals Cook Excellently. Or just the word FACE
The notes represented by the lines on the bass clef stave (bottom to top):
(G, B, D, F, A)
Good Boys Do Fine, Always.
And the notes represented by the spaces between the lines:
(A, C, E, G)
All Cows Eat Grass.
The order of planets in average distance from the Sun:
(Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto)
My Very Easy Method: Just Set Up Nine Planets.
(Pluto is sometimes no longer recognised as a planet)
|A very uncouth|
|Bed cover or|
• Fair Dinkum
|Usually AFL, but sometimes NRL, and other times soccer. It’s all very confusing|
• Good onya
• No worries!
|Expression don't panic|
|End of school|
|To buy drinks|
|A day taken offrom work|
|ADSL||(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - A method for moving data over regular telephone lines that is much faster than a regular telephone connection. A common configuration of ADSL would allow a subscriber to download at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits per second, and upload at speeds of up to 128 kilobits per second.|
|Advise||Recommend or inform|
|Analyse||Look at and write about details of a passage thoughtfully|
|Analyse||State reasons for, report on. Give an account of; narrate a series of events or transactions|
|Analyse||Identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate implications|
|Analyze||Take apart a concept or a process, and explain it step by step. You could encounter analysis questions in any discipline, from science to history. An analysis question is usually a long essay question.|
|Anonymous FTP||To connect to an FTP server without providing a personal login ID and password. Often permitted by large host computers who are willing to openly share some of their system files to outside users who otherwise would not be able to log in.|
|Applet||A small Java program that can be placed (embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc. on the local computer, and are prohibited from communicating with other computers across a network.|
|Apply||Use, utilise, employ in a particular situation|
|Archie||An early Internet search tool not used much since the advent of the Web Browser in 1994. It is an archive of filenames maintained at Internet FTP sites.|
|Argue||Make a case, based on appropriate evidence, for and/or against some given point of view|
|ARPANet||(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network - The precursor to the Internet. It was developed in the late 60's by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area networking that would survive a nuclear war.|
|ASCII||(American Standard Code for Information Interchange - The world-wide standard of code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper- and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, and punctuation. There are 128 standard ASCII codes, each of which can be represented by a 7-digit binary number, 0000000 through 1111111.|
|Assess||Make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes, results or size|
|AU||A common audio file format for UNIX systems (.au.|
|AVI||Audio/Video Interleaved - A common video file format (.avi. Video quality can be good at smaller resolutions, but files tend to be large.|
|Backbone||A high-speed line, or series of connections, that forms a major pathway within a network. This term is relative, as a backbone in a small network may be much smaller than non-backbone lines in a large network.|
|Bandwidth||The transmission capacity of the lines that carry the Internet's electronic traffic. The greater the bandwidth, the more data that can be moved at one time. Lack of bandwidth can impose severe limitations on the ability of the Internet to quickly deliver information.|
|Baud||The baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second.|
|BBS||Bulletin Board System - An online meeting and information system that allows people to carry on discussions, make announcements and transfer files. There are thousands of BBS's around the world, varying in size from those running on a single machine with only 1 or 2 phone lines, to massive networks such as CompuServe.|
|Binhex||BINary HEXadecimal - A method for converting non-text files into ASCII files. This is required because Internet email can only handle ASCII files.|
|Bit||Binary DigIT - A bit is the smallest unit of computerized data, comprised of either a 0 (off or a 1 (on. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.|
|BITNET||'Because It's Time NETwork' or 'Because It's There NETwork' - A network of educational sites separate from the Internet. Listserv, the most popular form of email discussion groups, originated on BITNET.|
|Bookmark||A pointer to a Web site of interest. Within browsers, pages can be "bookmarked" for quick reference, rather than remembering and typing the complete URL in the address bar.|
|Bps||Bits per second - A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem can move data at 28,800 bits per second.|
|Browser||A software program that is used to view websites and other Internet resources on the WWW.|
|BTW||By The Way - A shorthand term appended to a comment in an online forum or email.|
|Byte||A set of bits that represent a single character. There are usually 8 bits in a byte.|
|Cache||A section of memory or the Hard Drive where data can be stored for rapid or frequent access.|
|Calculate||Ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information|
|Certificate Authority||An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections.|
|CGI||Common Gateway Interface - A programming language used to convert data gathered from a web page into another form. A CGI program might turn the content of a feedback form into an email message, or search a server's database with user-entered keywords.|
|cgi-bin||The most common directory to store CGI programs on a web server. The "bin" part of "cgi-bin" is an abbreviation of "binary", dating back to when programs were referred to as "binaries".|
|Choose (multiple-choice||Decide or select the most suitable from a number of different options|
|Clarify||Make clear or plain|
|ClariNet||A commercial news service dedicated to a wide range of topics that provides tailored news reports via the Internet. You can access ClariNet news within Usenet newsgroups.|
|Classify||Arrange or include in classes/categories|
|Client / Server||Computer technology that separates computers and their users into two categories. When you want information from a computer on the Internet, you are a client. The computer that delivers the information is the server. A server both stores information and makes it available to any authorized client who requests the information.|
|Comment||Provide a definition of a key term you’ve covered in class. This is usually a short essay type of question. (See Memorizing Terms|
|Comment||Explain and examine a written passage.|
|Comment||If a test question prompts you to comment on a fact or statement, you will need to explain the relevance of the fact or statement. For example, you could be prompted to comment on a particular amendment quoted in a government exam, or comment on a passage that is quoted on a literature exam.|
|Comment||Explain and examine a written passage.|
|Comment on||Make reference to and expand upon|
|Compare||If you are prompted to examine a topic, you will use your own judgment to explore (in writing a topic and comment on significant elements, events, or acts. Provide your opinion and explain how or why you came to your conclusions.|
|Compare||Find differences and similarities. Provide an answer that gives a “why” response. Provide a complete overview of the problem and solution for a particular issue or process. This is a typical form of question used in science exams.|
|Compare||Show likenesses and differences when you compare two events, theories, or processes. If you are expected to illustrate a topic, you should use examples to show or explain a topic. Depending on the subject matter, you might use words, drawings, diagrams, or behavior to illustrate an answer.|
|Compare||Interpretation of a subject calls for the ability to read between the lines and draw conclusions. You will be expected to explain the meaning of an act, action, or passage in an interpretation.|
|Compare||Show how things are similar and different|
|Complete||Finish an outlined task|
|Compression||Data files available for upload and download are often compressed in order to save space and reduce transfer times. Typical file extensions for compressed files include .zip (DOS/Windows and .tar (UNIX.|
|Consider||Reflect on and make a judgement/evaluation|
|Construct||Make; build; put together items or arguments|
|Contrast||Used for showing differences between two processes or theories, a contrast question could appear on a literature exam, a history exam, a science exam, and more.|
|Contrast||Show how things are different or opposite|
|Cookie||A piece of information (login names, passwords, online "shopping cart" items, user preferences, etc. sent by a web server to a web browser and saved to the computer. These "cookies" can then be used at a later date to restore the information when the web server is accessed again. Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time.|
|Correlate||Demonstrate a mutual or complementary relationship|
|Create||Make, invent something|
|Critically (analyse/evaluate||Add a degree or level of accuracy depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to analyse/evaluate|
|Cyberspace||This term was coined by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer. Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information available through computer networks.|
|Debate||Develop a logical (sometimes persuasive argument, giving differing views in response to a topic|
|Define||Provide a definition of a key term you’ve covered in class. This is usually a short essay type of question.|
|Define||State meaning and identify essential qualities|
|Definitions||in the glossary are generic and applicable across all courses. Teachers must note that some terms have a more course specific meaning that derives directly from the content and the language of the course.|
|Demonstrate||If you are asked to demonstrate, you must provide proof of your answer by using an example. A demonstration could be a physical action, a visual illustration, or a written statement.|
|Demonstrate||If you are asked to demonstrate, you must provide proof of your answer by using an example. A demonstration could be a physical action, a visual illustration, or a written statement.|
|Demonstrate||Show by example|
|Describe||Give a detailed picture to your reader using words.|
|Describe||Provide characteristics and features|
|Determine||Decide, find out|
|Diagram||Demonstrate your answer by drawing a chart or other visual element to illustrate your points.|
|Dial-In||An Internet account that connects a PC directly to the Internet. These accounts use a software application to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP and establish a TCP/IP link to the Internet. To access a dial-in connection, a PC needs either a modem to connect via a regular phone line or a terminal adapter (TA to connect via an ISDN phone line.|
|Discuss||When a teacher instructs you to “discuss” a topic, he or she is trying to determine whether you understand both sides of an issue. You will need to demonstrate that you know the strengths and weaknesses of both sides. You should pretend that you are having a conversation with a friend and voicing both sides.|
|Discuss||Write about, showing different possible opinions.|
|Discuss||Write about, showing different possible opinions.|
|Discuss||Identify issues and provide points for and/or against|
|Discussion Group||A section within USENET dedicated to a particular topic or interest. Discussion groups are also known as newsgroups.|
|Distinguish||Recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different from; note differences between|
|DNS||Domain Name Server - A computer running a program that converts domain names into IP addresses and vice versa. Domain Name Servers (also known as Name Servers are the backbone of the Internet.|
|Domain Control Panel||A password access section of our site that Domain Registrants and Partners use to make domain modifications, receive proprietary scripting code, and use our management system. Each panel's content is different and will depend on your status in relation to Registrars.com.|
|Domain Name||A unique name that identifies an Internet site. A domain name is the Internet's way of translating a numeric IP address into an easy-to-remember combination of words and numbers. A given machine may have more than one domain name, but a given domain name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names "example.com", "mail.example.com" and "sales.example.com" can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine.|
|Download||The process of transferring data from a remote computer to a local computer. When you copy a file from a computer on the Internet to your computer, you are "downloading" that file.|
|Draw (diagrams etc.||An instruction, as in draw a circle|
|Electronic Mail - Messages sent from one person to another via the Internet. Email can also be sent to a large number of addresses at once through a Mailing List.|
|Enumerate||Enumerating is providing a list in a particular order. When you enumerate a list of items, you may need to specify why items go in a particular order.|
|Enumerate||Enumerating is providing a list in a particular order. When you enumerate a list of items, you may need to specify why items go in a particular order.|
|Ethernet||The common method of networking computers in a LAN, or Local Area Network. An Ethernet connection will handle about 10,000,000 bits per second.|
|Evaluate||Make a judgement based on criteria; determine the value of|
|Examine||Read, and then write about in detail.|
|Examine||If you are prompted to examine a topic, you will use your own judgment to explore (in writing a topic and comment on significant elements, events, or acts. Provide your opinion and explain how or why you came to your conclusions.|
|Explain||Make clear, giving details.|
|Explain||Provide an answer that gives a “why” response. Provide a complete overview of the problem and solution for a particular issue or process. This is a typical form of question used in science exams.|
|Explain||Make clear, giving details.|
|Explain||Relate cause and effect; make the relationships between things evident; provide why and/or how|
|Explore||Investigate, search for or evaluate|
|Extract||Choose relevant and/or appropriate details|
|Extrapolate||Infer from what is known|
|FAQ||Frequently Asked Questions - An FAQ is a document that lists and answers the most common questions on a particular subject. It is considered good netiquette (the Internet's code of conduct to check for FAQs and read them.|
|Finger||An Internet tool for locating people on other sites. Finger can also be used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular site. The most famous finger site was a Coke machine at Carnegie-Mellon University that students had wired to the Internet. They could then finger the machine and find out how many bottles remained and how long they had been in the machine so they wouldn't walk all the way there and find an empty machine or warm soda.|
|Firewall||A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN into two or more parts for security purposes. A firewall is commonly used to separate a network from the Internet.|
|Flame||Originally, to "flame" meant to debate in a passionate manner, often involving the use of flowery language. More recently, flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory or inflammatory comment, no matter how witless or crude.|
|Flame War||When an online discussion degenerates into a series of personal attacks against the debaters, rather than a discussion of their positions, it is referred to as a flame war.|
|FQDN||Fully Qualified Domain Name - The official name assigned to an individual computer. Organizations register names, such as "example.com", then assign unique names to their computers, such as "mail.example.com".|
|Freeware||Software that is available for download and unlimited use without charge.|
|FTP||File Transfer Protocol - A common method of moving files between two Internet sites. Most FTP sites require a login name and password before files can be retrieved or sent.|
|Gateway||Hardware or software set up to translate between two different protocols. For example, Prodigy has a gateway that translates between its internal email format and Internet email format. Another definition of gateway is any mechanism for providing access to another system. For example, AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.|
|GIF||Graphics Interchange Format - A graphics file format commonly used on the Internet to provide images on Web pages. GIF images are 8-bit (256-color graphics).|
|Gigabyte||A thousand (technically 2^10 or 1024 Megabytes).|
|Gopher||A searching tool that was once the primary tool for finding information on the Internet before the WWW became popular. Gopher is now buried under massive amounts of WWW pages.|
|Helper Application||A program allowing you to view multimedia files (images, audio, video that your web browser cannot handle internally. The file must be downloaded before it will be displayed. There are some plug-ins that allow you to view the file over the Internet without downloading it first.|
|Hit||A "hit" is a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server. For example, a page displaying 3 graphics would require 4 hits one for the HTML document, and one for each of the 3 graphics. "Hits" are often used as a rough measure of load on a server; however, because each hit can represent a request for anything from a tiny document to a complex search request, the actual load on a machine from a single hit is impossible to define.|
|Home Page (or Homepage||Originally, a home page was the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common definition refers to the main web page for any business or personal site.|
|Host||Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is common to have one host machine provide several services, such as WWW and USENET.|
|HTML||HyperText Markup Language - The language used to build hypertext documents on the WWW. They are nothing more than plain ASCII-text documents interpreted (or rendered by a web browser to display formatted text and fonts, color, graphic images, and links.|
|HTTP||HyperText Transfer Protocol - The protocol for moving hypertext (HTML files across the Internet. This requires a HTTP client program on one end and a HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used on the WWW. http://www.example.com/examples.html. The most common use of a URL is to enter it in a web browser to access that page on the Internet.|
|Hypertext||Text in a document that contains a link to other text. Hypertext is used in Windows help programs and CD encyclopedias as well as web pages to link and reference related information across documents.|
|Illustrate||Show with examples.|
|Illustrate||If you are expected to illustrate a topic, you should use examples to show or explain a topic. Depending on the subject matter, you might use words, drawings, diagrams, or behavior to illustrate an answer.|
|Illustrate||Similar to 'explain' (see above, but requires the quoting of specific examples or statistics or possibly the drawing of maps, graphs, sketches, etc.|
|IMHO||In My Humble Opinion - A shorthand term appended to a comment in an online forum or email. IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they are expressing a debatable or dissenting view.|
|Information Superhighway||There is some debate about this term. Some claim it refers to the future, where everyone will have fast, easy access to the Internet and things such as video conferencing will be widely available. Others claim that the Internet as we already know it is the Information Superhighway.|
|Internet||The vast collection of inter-connected networks that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's.|
|internet created||Lower case I An internet is created any time 2 or more networks are connected together.|
|Internet Explorer||A web browser developed by Microsoft Corporation to compete with Netscape.|
|Interpret||Interpretation of a subject calls for the ability to read between the lines and draw conclusions. You will be expected to explain the meaning of an act, action, or passage in an interpretation.|
|Interpret||Draw meaning from|
|Intranet||A network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software found on the Internet, but is only for internal use. A company web server available only to employees would be an Intranet.|
|Investigate||Plan, inquire into and draw conclusions about|
|IP Number||Internet Protocol Number - A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots. 123.45.678.9 could be an IP number. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number. Most machines also have one or more domain names that are easier for people to remember.|
|IRC||Internet Relay Chat - A large multi-user live chat facility. There are a number of major IRC servers around the world that are linked to each other. Anyone connected to IRC can create a channel or chat room, and all others in the channel see everything that everyone types.|
|ISDN||Integrated Services Digital Network - A high-speed way to move data over existing phone lines. In theory, it can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second; in practice, most people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.|
|ISOC||Internet SOCiety - Based in Herndon, Virginia, the Internet Society promotes the Internet and coordinates standards. You can visit their site (http://www.isoc.org/ to learn more or become a member.|
|ISP||Internet Service Provider - A business that provides access to the Internet and WWW in some form, usually for pay.|
|Java||A network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems specifically designed for creating programs that can be downloaded to your computer from a web page and immediately run. Using small Java programs ("applets", Web pages can include features such as animations, calculators and other fancy or interactive tricks.|
|JDK||Java Development Kit - A software development package from Sun Microsystems containing the basic tools needed to write, test, and debug Java applications and applets.|
|JPG||Joint Photographic Experts Group - The name of the committee that designed the photographic image-compression standard. The format (.jpg is optimized for compressing full-color or grayscale photographic images, and does not work well for line drawings or black-and-white images. JPG images are 24-bit (16.7 million color graphics.|
|Justify||If you are asked to justify something, you will be expected to use examples or evidence to show why (in your opinion it is correct. You must provide reasons for your conclusions and opinions.|
|Justify||Support an argument or conclusion; give reasons for your statements or comments|
|Kilobyte||A thousand (technically, 2^10 or 1024 bytes.|
|Label (and annotate)||Identify by placing a name or word used to describe the object or thing|
|LAN||Local Area Network - A computer network restricted to a limited area, usually the same building or a floor of a building. Office computers are typically connected to a LAN.|
|Leased-line||Refers to a telephone line that is rented for an exclusive 24-hour, 7-days-a-week connection from your location to the Internet. The highest speed data connections require a leased line.|
|List||Lists are used in every discipline. In list questions you must provide a series of answers. If you are expected to memorize a certain number of items for an exam, be sure to remember how many there are in total. (See Dates and Lists|
|List||Provide a series of related words, names, numbers or items that are arranged in order, one after the other|
|List server||The most common kind of mailing list. List servers originated on BITNET, but are now common on the Internet.|
|Login||The user- or account-name used to gain access to a computer system. Also, the act of entering or "signing on" to a computer system.|
|Lurking||To read through mailing lists or newsgroups and get a feel of the topic before posting your own messages. It is considered good netiquette to "lurk" a while before joining an online discussion.|
|Mailing List||An email-based discussion group. Sending one email message to the mailing list sends email to all other members of the group. Mailing lists are usually joined by subscribing, and can be left by unsubscribing.|
|Make notes||Write out key ideas in point form, not sentences.|
|Masking||To conceal a web site's URL in some manner, normally by using a domain name. For example, if a URL shows up as "http://www.example.com/" but the web site is actually located at "http://www.somewhere-else.com/example/", that URL is said to be "masked".|
|Megabyte||A million bytes or a thousand (technically 2^10 or 1024 kilobytes.|
|MIDI||Musical Instrument Digital Interface - A high-quality audio file format (.mid.|
|MIME||Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions - The Internet standard for attaching non-text files to standard email messages. Non-text files can include graphics, spreadsheets, word-processor documents, sound files, etc. An email program is said to be "MIME Compliant" if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard.|
|Mirror||To "mirror" something is to maintain an exact copy of it. The most common use of the term on the Internet refers to "mirror sites" which are FTP or web sites that maintain exact copies of material originally stored at another location. Another common use of the term "mirror" refers to writing information to more than one hard disk simultaneously to prevent its loss or destruction.|
|Modem||MOdulator, DEModulator - An electronic device that lets computers communicate with one another, much as telephones work with people. The name is derived from "modulator-demodulator" because of their function in processing data over analog phone lines. Terminal Adapters are often (and mistakenly referred to as modems.|
|Mosaic||The first web browser that was available for Macintosh, Windows and UNIX machines with the same interface for each. The popularity of the WWW began with Mosaic.|
|MPEG||Motion Picture Experts Group - A video file format (.mpeg offering excellent quality in a comparatively small size. Video files found on the Internet are frequently stored in the MPEG format.|
|Multimedia||A combination of media types in a single document, such as text, graphics, audio and video.|
|Multiple Choice||A selection of questions with alternate answers (pick one)|
|MX Records||MX Records are required to be able to send email to domain names (firstname.lastname@example.org, rather than the actual mail server (email@example.com. There are other methods for forwarding messages from a domain to a mail server, but MX Records are the preferred method.|
|Name||Provide a word or term used to identify an object, person, thing, place etc. (something that is known and distinguished from other people or things|
|NCSA||National Center for Supercomputing Applications - One of the five original centers in the Supercomputer Centers Program and a unit of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It was founded in 1986, and is responsible for developing Mosaic, the web browser responsible for launching the multibillion dollar dot-com explosion.|
|Netiquette||The desired mode of manners and conduct for the Internet.|
|Netizen||A term referring to a citizen of the Internet, or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.|
|Netscape||A web browser created by Netscape Communications Corporation. The Netscape browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA. It provided major improvements in speed and interface over other browsers, but also engendered debate by being the first to create browser-specific elements for HTML.|
|Network||A network is created any time 2 or more computers are connected together to share resources. When 2 or more networks are connected, it becomes an internet.|
|Newsgroup||The name for a discussion group on USENET.|
|NIC(1)||Networked Information Center - (Networked Information Center - Any office that handles information for a network can be referred to as an NIC. The most famous of these is the InterNIC, the original ofice of domain registration . Another definition of NIC is Network Interface Card, which plugs into a computer and adapts the network interface to the appropriate standard.|
|NIC(2) (Network Information Center -||a unique ID Code issued by Registrars.com to identify contact persons associated with a domain name. There can be up to 3 NIC handles per domain, referred to as 'ADMIN / TECH / BILL', each having its own area of responsibility.|
|NNTP||Network News Transfer Protocol - The protocol used by client and server software to move a USENET posting over a TCP/IP network. Most common web browsers use an NNTP connection to participate in newsgroups.|
|Node||Any single computer connected to a network.|
|OC-3 and OC-12||High-speed data links capable of transferring data at 155 and 622 Megabits-per-second respectively. OC-3’s and OC-12’s are replacing T-3’s as the backbones of the Internet.|
|Online||When someone is connected to the Internet, they are considered "online".|
|Order||Place itens in an appropriate order|
|Order||Provide a chronological or value-based answer by listing several items (terms or events in correct placement. You could be asked to place events in a certain order on a history exam, or you could be asked to put a scientific process in the correct order. (See Method of Loci|
|Organise||Put your ideas together in a clear and structured way.|
|Outline||Provide a brief summary of what you are going to do|
|Outline||Provide an explanation with headings and subheadings. This is a common instruction word found on literature exams.|
|Outline||Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of|
|Packet||A chunk of data. The TCP/IP protocol breaks large data files into smaller "packets" for transmission over the Internet. When the data reaches its destination, the protocol makes sure that all packets arrived without error.|
|Packet Switching||A method of moving data around the Internet that allows many people to use the same lines at the same time. In packet switching, all data being transferred from a machine is broken into packets, with each packet having the address of its origin and destination. This enables packets from different sources to be simultaneously transferred, sorted and directed on the same line.|
|Password||A code used to gain access to a locked system. Effective passwords should contain both letters and non-letters and not be common or easily guessed words.|
|Persuade||Encourage someone else to think in a certain way.|
|Ping||A program for determining if another computer is presently connected to the Internet.|
|Pixel||Shorthand for "picture element", a pixel is the smallest unit of resolution on a monitor. It is commonly used as a unit of measurement.|
|PKZIP||A widely available shareware utility that allows users to compress and decompress data files.|
|Plan||Organise your ideas before starting a piece of writing.|
|Plug-in||A small piece of software that adds features to a larger software application. Common plug-ins are those for web browsers (RealAudio, QuickTime, etc. or graphics programs (Kai's Power Tools, DigiMarc, etc.|
|POP||"Point Of Presence" or "Post Office Protocol" - A Point of Presence usually refers to a city or location where a network can be connected to. For example, if an Internet company says they have a POP in Vancouver, this means they have a local telephone number in Vancouver and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network. A second definition, Post Office Protocol, refers to the way email software (such as Eudora retrieves mail from a mail server. Almost all SLIP, PPP or shell accounts come with a POP account as well.|
|Port||3 definitions - First and most frequently, a port is where information goes into and/or out of a computer, such as the serial port on a PC. Secondly, a "port" often refers to the number appearing after the colon (: in a domain name, such as http://www.example.com:7000/. Thirdly, to "port" something refers to translating a piece of software from one computer platform to another (for example, from Windows to Macintosh.|
|Posting||A single message entered into a newsgroup, mailing list, or other communications system.|
|PPP||Point to Point Protocol - The protocol that allows a computer to use a phone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections and connect to the Internet.|
|Predict||Suggest what may happen based on available information|
|Prepare (e.g. in Accounting)||Take the necessary action to put something into a state where it is fit for use or action, or for a particular event or purpose|
|Present||Show your information.|
|Present (an argument )||Offer or convey something such as an argument or statement to somebody formally; a discussion that offers different points of view on an issue or topic; debate|
|Propose||Put forward (for example a point of view, idea, argument, suggestion for consideration or action|
|Protocol||Computer rules that provide uniform specifications so that all computer hardware and operating systems can communicate with each other.|
|Prove||To prove an answer, you must use evidence (this could be numbers or reasoning to solve a problem. Tests that require proof normally appear on science or math exams.|
|PSTN||Public Switched Telephone Network - The regular telephone system.|
|QuickTime||A common video file format created by Apple Computers. Video files found on the Internet are often stored in this format, and require a browser plug-in to be viewed (.mov.|
|Recall||Present remembered ideas, facts or experiences|
|Recommend||Provide reasons in favour|
|Recount||Retell a series of events|
|Register||To pay a software company for a product to receive the full working copy. Registration is most often required for shareware programs, which may be partially disabled or contain "nags" until registered.|
|Relate||Relate could mean a few different things on an exam|
|Relate||1 You could be asked to show a relationship between two events or items by discussing their similarities; or 2 You could be required to provide a written account of something (as in literature.|
|Respond to||Provide an answer; reply|
|Review||If a test question prompts you to review a process or event, you should recall and repeat all the most important elements or facts that you learned about a specific topic in essay form.|
|RFC||Request For Comments - The process for creating a standard on the Internet and the name of the result. New standards are proposed and published online, as a Request For Comments. Any new standards that are established retain the acronym RFC. For example, the official standard for email is RFC 822.|
|Robot||A program that automatically searches the WWW for files and catalogues the results.|
|Router||A computer or software package that handles the connection between 2 or more networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the destination addresses of the packets passing through them to decide which route to send them on.|
|RTFM||Read The F***ing Manual - A commonly used abbreviation in online forums and email, in response to foolish questions or questions already answered in the FAQ. A repository of FAQs can be found at http://rtfm.mit.edu/.|
|Search Engine||A tool for locating information on the Internet by topic. Popular search engines include Yahoo, AltaVista, and HotBot.|
|Security Certificate||Information that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. Security Certificates contain information about its ownership, issuer, valid dates, and an encrypted "fingerprint" that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate. In order for an SSL connection to be created, both sides must have a valid Security Certificate.|
|Select||Choose somebody or something from among several|
|Server / Client||A computer or software package that provides a specific kind of service to client software on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software (such as a WWW server or to the machine that the software is running on (such as a mail server. A single server machine may have several different server software packages running on it.|
|Shareware||Software that is available on a limited free trial basis. Some shareware applications are fully featured products, while others may have disabled features to encourage purchase of the full ("registered" version.|
|Shell Account||A software application that allows use of another machines' Internet connection. Users do not have a direct Internet connection; instead, an Internet connection is made through a host computer's connection.|
|Show||Give information; illustrate|
|Signature File||An ASCII text file containing the text for someone's signature. Most email programs will automatically attach a signature file to all messages sent, eliminating the need to repeatedly type a closing.|
|Site||A single web page or a collection of related Web pages.|
|Sketch||A picture or diagram that is done quickly, roughly; a brief outline|
|SLIP||Serial Line Internet Protocol - A standard for using a telephone line (or serial line and a modem to connect a computer to the Internet. SLIP is gradually being replaced by PPP.|
|SMTP||Simple Mail Transport Protocol - The main protocol used to send email on the Internet. STMP consists of a set of rules for how the sending and receiving programs should interact.|
|SNMP||Simple Network Management Protocol - A set of standards for communicating with devices connected to a TCP/IP network, such as routers, hubs, and switches. Software for managing devices via SNMP is available for every kind of commonly used computer and is often bundled along with the device they are designed to manage.|
|Spam (or Spamming||To send a message or advertisement to a large number of people who did not request the information, or to repeatedly send the same message to a single person. "Spamming" is considered very poor Netiquette. CAUCE (The Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email is an organization dedicated to removing spam from the Internet.|
|SQL||Structured Query Language - A specialized programming language for sending queries to databases. Each application will have its own version of SQL-implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases will support a common subset of SQL.|
|SRS||Shared Registry Server - The central system for all accredited registrars to access and register/control domain names.|
|SSL||Secure Sockets Layer - A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communication across the Internet. SSL is used mostly, but not exclusively, in communications between web browsers and web servers. A URL that begins with "https" instead of "http" indicates an SSL connection will be used.|
|Standard English||The type of language used in formal situations.|
|State||Express the main points of an idea or topic, perhaps in the manner of 'describe' or 'enumerate' (see above|
|Subscribe||To become a member of a mailing list, newsgroup, or other online service.|
|Summarise||Express, concisely, the relevant details|
|Synthesise||Put together various elements to make a whole; gather all ideas and combine them into a complex whole; combine all parts|
|Sysop||SYStem OPerator - Someone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network. A System Administrator (or Sysadmin decides how often system maintenance should be performed, and the Sysop performs those tasks.|
|T-1||A leased-line connection capable of transferring data at 1,544,000 bps. At maximum capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds.|
|T-3||A leased-line connection capable of transferring data at 44,736,000 bps. This is fast enough to view full-screen, full-motion video, which requires a transfer rate of at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second.|
|TAR||Tape ARchive - A compression format commonly used in the transfer and storage of files on UNIX computers (.tar.|
|TCP/IP||Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol - This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is not available for every major computer operating system. To connect to the Internet, a computer must have TCP/IP software.|
|Telnet||An Internet protocol allowing a PC to connect to a host computer and use that computer as if you were locally connected. This often provides the ability to use all the software and capabilities of the host computer.|
|Terabyte||A thousand (technically 2^10 or 1024 Gigabytes.|
|Terminal Adapter||An electronic device that interfaces a PC with a host computer via an ISDN phone line. They are often called "ISDN modems"; however, because they are digital, Terminal Adapters are not modems at all.|
|Terminal Server||A special-purpose computer with places to plug in several modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. The terminal server does the work of passing connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.|
|Thread||An ongoing message-based conversation on a single subject.|
|TIFF||Tag Image File Format - A popular graphic image file format (.tif.|
|Trace||To trace an event or process, go over it in detail and explain it step by step. You could trace an event that occurred in history or you could trace a process in science.|
|Trolling||The act of deliberately posting false or inflammatory information in order to start a flame war or cause aggravation to others.|
|UNIX||The most common operating system for servers on the Internet. UNIX systems are designed to be used by many people at the same time and have TCP/IP built in.|
|Upload||The process of transferring data from a local computer to a remote computer. When you copy a file from your computer to a computer on the Internet, you are "uploading" that file.|
|URL||Uniform Resource Locator - The standard method of giving the address for any resource on the WWW. A URL might look like this|
|USENET||A distributed bulletin board system that runs on news servers, UNIX hosts, online services and bulletin board systems. Collectively, USENET is made up of all the users who post to and read newsgroup articles. The USENET is the largest decentralized information utility available today.|
|UUENCODE||Unix to Unix Encoding - A method for converting files from Binary format to ASCII text so that they can be sent across the Internet via email.|
|Veronica||Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives - Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica is a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopher servers.|
|WAIS||Wide Area Information Servers - A commercial software package that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, then makes those indices searchable across networks and the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is the ranking (scoring of the search results, according to how relevant the hits are. See Also|
|WAN||Wide Area Network - Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus.|
|WAV||Waveform Audio - A common audio file format for DOS and Windows computers (.wav.|
|WINSOCK||A Microsoft Windows DLL file that provides the interface to TCP/IP services and allows Windows to use web browsers, FTP programs, and other Internet-related programs.|
|WWW||World Wide Web - The technical definition of the WWW is the global network of hypertext (HTTP servers that allow text, graphics, audio and video files to be mixed together. The second, more loosely used definition is the entire range of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS, and other such tools.|
|ZIP||A compressed file format (.zip. Many files available on the Internet are compressed or "zipped" in order to reduce storage space and transfer times.|
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The integration of critical language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing into the daily curriculum in every class.
Agreement or coherence between the essential questions, content, skills, assessments, and the standards adopted by the district. Maps allow us to see three types of alignment: internal alignment, external alignment to standards, and cumulative alignment K-12.
The various kinds of assessments such as quiz, test, performance assessment, essay, etc. that allow students to demonstrate their learning.
Demonstrations of learning aligned to the benchmarks and standards that allow students to show you what they know. They are products and performances used as evidence of skill development and content understanding.
Assigning students with similar skills to learning groups.
Any part of a school day when a student is not in school.
What a student has learned from classroom instruction.
The member of the teaching staff assigned to provide school advice and guidance to students.
The expectation that schools and/or educators should be held responsible for improving student achievement and should be rewarded or sanctioned for their success or lack of success in doing so.
Official recognition that a person or an organization meets specific requirements to be able to deliver instruction.
The ability to correctly read, write, and solve problems.
A consistent difference in academic test scores between groups of students. The gaps most frequently referred to are those between white students and minority groups such as African-American and Hispanic students.
Tests used to measure how much a student has learned in various school subjects.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
The minimum level of improvement established by the federal government, that public schools must achieve each year
A school district employee, such as principal, director, or superintendent, who is responsible for directing and managing a school or program.
Advanced Placement (AP) Program
A series of high-level courses that high school students can take to earn college credits.
A small group of students who meet regularly with a school staff member to discuss school work and requirements.
(noun) Someone who acts on behalf of another person.
(verb) To support or speak in favor of an idea, issue, or person(s).
A term which refers to emotions and attitudes.
Programs run by schools and/or organizations that provide recreational and learning activities for students after the end of the regular school day or on the weekends.
How well the skills and knowledge taught in schools match the requirements of state and/or federal learning standards.
Any form of measuring what students know and are able to do other than traditional tests. Examples are oral reports, projects, performances, experiments, portfolios (collections of student’s work), and class participation.
A public school designed by a school district to serve students whose needs are not being met in the traditional public school environment.
American College Test (ACT)
The ACT is one of the two commonly used tests designed to assess high school students' general educational development and their ability to complete college-level work.
A request for a person or entity with greater authority to review and change an earlier decision.
A combination of on-the-job training (OJT) and related classroom instruction under the supervision of a trade professional.
Tests that attempt to predict a person's ability to do something.
An agreement between a high school or skill center and a community or technical college that allows the high school or skill center to offer college credit for a secondary career and technical education (CTE) course.
Teacher-made tests, standardized tests, or tests from textbook companies that are used to measure a student's skills or knowledge.
An award showing that a student has completed a two-year course of study in a community college.
Usual, expected, or ordinary performance.
Average Daily Attendance (ADA)
The total number of days of student attendance divided by the total number of days in the regular school year.
AVID stands for Advancement Via Individual Determination and is a fourth-through twelfth-grade system to prepare students for four-year college eligibility. Schools that participate in AVID are required to meet staff training and membership requirements.
Specific developmental statements regarding performance based standards. Benchmarks are usually defined in behavioral and observable terms.
The examination of student work and performance data on two levels the subject matter concepts and skills and the requisite language capacity (e.g. linguistic patterns, three types of distinctive vocabulary, and editing and revising strategies.
An award that normally requires at least four years of full-time equivalent college courses.
The fundamental skills needed to succeed in school and eventually in life. Historically, these skills have included the ability to read, write, and calculate (math).
A Washington state law that requires school districts to take specific actions when students are absent. The law is RCW 28A.225.030.
Under the usual, expected, or ordinary quality or performance.
The level of performance students should show by a particular point in their schooling.
Classroom instructional strategies that have been demonstrated and accepted by the professional community to improve student learning.
School program where two languages are used to teach the curriculum so that students gain knowledge of both languages.
Usually used in middle or high school, this scheduling allow student to have fewer classes per day and longer time in each class.
An agreement by the citizens of a school district to repay the money borrowed by the school district for major construction or purchases, such as new school buildings, computers, or school improvements.
A volunteer organization, usually parents and alumni, whose sole objective is to provide ongoing financial assistance in support of a schools’ extracurricular programs, for example athletic program boosters or music boosters.
A program using state and federal dollars to provide low-cost or free breakfasts to low income students.
The plan for how to spend the school’s or school district’s funds.
A printed news publication.
Repeated negative behavior that a person uses to take advantage of someone with less power. A bully is someone who uses bullying behavior.
Tools that include the critical criteria for exemplary products. They are used to sharpen focus and ensure quality work.
A relational statement that provides the focus and basis for acquiring knowledge. It is synonymous with the enduring understanding or big idea.
Is the subject matter; key concepts; facts; topics; important information.
Agreed upon curriculum identified by teachers and administrators that determines which elements must be consistently taught by all teachers in a course/or subject and where flexibility will be critical.
Is a systemic process that can improve student performance by sharpening the alignment of all aspects of the curriculum to reduce repetitions, gaps, and strengthen the articulation of skills.
Refers to all days of the week, including weekends and holidays.
Career and Technical Education (CTE)
Classes that allow students to get credit for training in a skill or trade while still in high school. CTE classes may be held on-site or at a skill center.
Funds from the state or federal government granted to qualifying school districts for specific programs and/or for particular groups of students.
Certificate of Individual Achievement
An official document available for students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) who are unable to take the High School HSPE (with or without accommodations).
School employees who are required by the state to hold teaching certificates. Also referred to as Certified Staff.
A method that teaches students about basic human values.
A school that is run by a group of organizers other than the school board and free from most state and local regulations.
The way a classroom is organized to make instructional time as productive possible for all students.
The number of students enrolled in a school classroom.
A school where students are not allowed to leave the school grounds during the school day without permission.
A term which refers to reasoning or intellectual capacity.
The changes in the way children think, process information, and learn as they grow up.
The mental processes involved in learning, such as remembering and understanding facts and ideas.
Individuals working together to accomplish goals.
An instructional strategy where students of different abilities and interests work together in small groups to solve a problem, complete a project, or achieve a common goal. Also known as Cooperative Learning.
The level of preparation a student needs to be ready to enroll and succeed, without remediation, in credit-bearing college course.
Schools that provide essential services, such as medical and dental services, nutrition classes, parent programs, and social services, for both students and families.
A two-year college, may also be known as a Junior College.
Tests created by a school district or state that students must pass before graduating.
Sentences with more than one clause or verbal phrase.
This is a term used to describe the interpretations, understanding, and meaning readers construct as they listen to and read stories.
Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI)
Educational programs delivered through the use of computers and educational software.
A strategy that schools use to prevent and address conflict among students. It usually includes a set of expectations for behavior.
A defined practice based on an understanding that there are various perspectives to address and solve a problem.
A learning theory that states that students learn by creating their own knowledge. Also known as Discovery Learning.
Contempt of Court
Someone who has willfully violated a court order can be judged to be in contempt of court.
The court hearing where a judge determines whether or not someone is in contempt of court.
Standards that describe what students should know and be able to do in core academic subjects at each grade level.
The words a student must know to communicate effectively about subject area material such as math, social studies, science, etc.
The words, phrases, and sentences surrounding an unfamiliar vocabulary word that help the student arrive at a possible definition.
A system of education in which individuals or small groups of students go through a sequence of lessons at their own pace, rather than at the pace of the entire classroom group.
A temporary teaching certificate given to a person who has expertise in a particular subject and that has been hired by a school district because they cannot find a certificated teacher with an endorsement in that subject.
Core Academic Subjects
The academic subjects schools and districts require all students to take in order to be eligible for grade promotion and graduation.
The main body of knowledge that all students are expected to learn.
A unit of coursework given for satisfactory completion of the course.
Tests designed to measure how thoroughly a student has learned a particular subject compared to an established benchmark.
Logical thinking based on sound evidence.
A set of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and skills that enables effective teaching in racially, culturally and socio-economically diverse classrooms.
The subject matter that is to be learned.
Text, audio, video, and/or electronic media used to teach the curriculum of a school or subject area.
The minimum score needed to pass a test.
Educational institutions that offer most or all of their instruction by computer through the internet.
A map where data are entered on an ongoing basis. Periodically, whether every few weeks or trimester, you will stop and reflect on your work with learners and make an entry.
The process of modifying or delineating some aspect of instruction the content, process, product, and/or learning environment to address the needs of the learners.
Differentiated Professional Development
Is modified professional development based on the level of understanding of the learners.
The process of translating individual letters or groups of letters into sounds so that the reader can pronounce a word.
Sentences that contain modifying words or phrases (adjectives and adverbs) and are more elaborate than simple sentences.
A disciplinary action that removes a student from the classroom to another designated space within the school.
Curriculum and instruction that is based on the mental and physical development of the student.
Developmental Screening Tests
Tests used to identify students who may have physical, behavioral, and/or developmental disabilities or delays, or sensory impairments.
DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)
A testing tool that helps teachers determine at what level students in 6th grades Kindergarten through are able to read and write.
An instructional technique that includes various ways to teach content and assess learning. It is used to meet student needs and differences in readiness, interests, and learning styles.
A certificate conferred by a high school, college, university or other educational institution as official recognition for the completion of a program of studies.
A teaching technique in which the teacher presents the content and students are expected to respond in a specific manner.
All forms of corrective action or punishment used with students.
Taking classes in locations other than the classroom or places where teachers present the lessons including online, DVD, or telecommuting.
Diversity involves recognizing a variety of student characteristics including those of ethnicity, language, socioeconomic class, disabilities, and gender.
When a court case is dismissed, it ends.
DRA (Developmental Reading Assessment)
A tool teachers use to assess and record Kindergarten to 3rd grade students' reading development.
Students who leave high school before graduating.
A course or program where high school students can earn both high school and college credits for the same course.
A school program designed to serve both language minority and language majority students at the same time. Students from two language groups receive instruction in both languages. Also known as Dual Immersion Program.
Due Process of Law
Ensures that a person will be notified and have an opportunity to be heard before any public entity can change her/his rights.
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.
The important understandings that have lasting value beyond the classroom.
Possible openings or entrances where curriculum mapping can be integrated into the current structure or processes in a school and/or district. This allows it to become part of the system.
Over-arching questions that focus based on a key concept, enduring understanding, and/or big idea to prompt inquiry.
A revision of agreements that are made by teachers and administrators that determine which elements must be consistently taught by all teachers in the course and where flexibility will be critical.
EALR (Essential Academic Learning Requirement)
Washington State’s definition of what all students should know and be able to do as a graduate of public schools.
Early Childhood Education
The education of pre-school age children.
The different electronic sources such as television, web pages, e-mail, CDs, etc. that may provide information or be used to share information.
ELL (English Language Learner)
A person learning English whose primary language is other than English.
Immediate removal of a student from school or class for an indefinite period of time.
The view that reading and writing learning begins at birth and is supported by adult interactions.
The ways in which individuals learn to interact in socially acceptable ways, establish and maintain relationships, and view themselves in positive ways.
Topics and activities that are not considered part of basic education.
An educational practice that builds students’ awareness of the natural world and how to protect it.
Case law based on religious non-discrimination. It requires schools that allow extra-curricular, voluntary-participation student clubs to meet on school property to also allow extra-curricular school use to religious groups.
ESL (English as a Second Language)
English language instruction for students whose primary language is not English.
To conduct a careful appraisal or study of something and determine its worth or value.
All amounts of money paid out by a school system.
Education that emphasizes learning from experiences rather than from lectures, books, and other secondhand sources and which may take the form of internships, service learning, school-to-work programs, field studies, or similar experiences.
Removal of a student from school, class, or sometimes district property for an indefinite period of time.
Activities that are not part of the required curriculum and that take place outside of the regular course of study.
A court procedure where a judge determines whether a legal case can be made against an individual.
Sounds that students hear or speak in their primary language.
Family involvement in education
Another term for parent participation in the education of their children .
FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act)
A federal law that protects the privacy of student education records.
Grants, loans, and funds provided by the government for college expenses, such as college tuition, textbooks, and sometimes the living costs of students.
Functions which require tiny muscle movements, for example, writing or typing.
The ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with proper expression and comprehension.
A test that determines what students have learned at a particular time in order to plan further instruction. Also knows as Formative Test.
Free or Reduced-Price Meal
A federal program that provides breakfast, lunch, and/or after school snacks for students from low-income families.
The inability to read or write well enough to perform many basic, necessary tasks in daily life.
Person legally placed in charge of the welfare of a minor or of someone incapable of managing her or his own affairs.
(Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) A federal grant program created to increase the number of low-income students who are prepared to enter and succeed in college.
The idea that one gender or the other is short-changed by school practices and expectations.
General Educational Development (GED) Test
A high school equivalency test certifies that a person has the skills and knowledge equal to those of a high school graduate.
Words that are critical to understanding the main idea, events, characters, themes of a lesson.
To arrive at a broad conclusion based upon a small piece of evidence. May also be referred to as Generalization.
A term used to classify literary and informational works into categories, such as biography, mystery, historical fiction, etc.
Gifted and Talented Program
A program that offers advanced coursework to students identified as being academically gifted or talented.
GLE (Grade Level Expectation)
The essential content or subject matter to be learned by students at a specific grade level.
Grade Point Average (GPA)
A system of scoring student achievement. Student's GPA is computed by multiplying the grade received in each course by the number of credits offered for each course, then dividing by the total number of credit hours studied.
A student who has received a diploma for successfully completing a program or school’s course requirements.
University level school that provides instruction and degrees beyond the bachelor degree.
The courses and number of credits required by a school district or the state to receive a high school diploma. The state provides a minimum set of requirements, and school boards can set additional graduation requirements for their school district.
Funds provided for students to attend college that do not have to be repaid.
Maps, diagrams, graphs, charts, or pictures that help make the text meaningful and interesting to readers.
A calculator with a larger display that draws and displays math functions and data.
Functions which require large muscle movements, for example, walking or jumping.
School staff member who provides academic advice to students and their families, helps them address learning problems, and assists students in career and personal development.
A teacher-led activity that the class completes together.
a connector or linchpin that connects all aspects of the school improvement process.
A federally sponsored preschool program for children from low-income families.
Curriculum that addresses physical, mental, emotional, and social health.
The decision-maker in school discipline hearings.
The practice of grouping together students of varying abilities, interests, or ages for instruction.
Study beyond high school at a college or university that results in an associate, bachelor, or higher degree. Also known as Post-secondary Education.
Questions that require thinking and reflection rather than single-solution responses.
Higher-Order Thinking Skills
The ability to understand complex concepts and apply sometimes conflicting information to solve a problem that may have more than one correct answer.
High Frequency Words
High utility words which make up 50% of printed text, for example A, the, this, that, etc
Highly Qualified Teacher
Teachers are required by federal law (NCLB) to meet following three criteria to be considered highly qualified
1) Holds at least a bachelor’s degree.
2) Holds full state certification.
3) Demonstrates subject matter knowledge and teaching skill in each core academic subject assigned to teach.
Generally grades 9th through 12th
Regular assignments to be completed outside the classroom.
Courses a school or district designs and offers to students to challenge their learning beyond the regular curriculum.
ID Ten T Refers to a stupid student (as student to write it down)
Maps developed by an individual teach that reflect what they teach in their class or subject. They include essential questions, content, skills, and assessments.
Programs, projects, and/or ideas implemented by schools and/or districts to improve some aspect of the system.
Lack of reading and/or writing skills.
A program that teaches children to speak, read, and write in another language by instructing them in that language.
The practice of educating all children of various needs and capabilities in the same classroom.
A temporary grade stating that a student has not finished all class assignments at the end of a grading period.
An opportunity for students to conduct self-directed learning and receive credit.
Also called Individualized Education, Differentiated Curriculum, Individualized Education, or Differentiated Instruction.
A practice provides each student with the lessons and assignments according to her/his strengths and needs. Students work at their own pace to learn the material.
A conclusion reached after reading text and using past knowledge and experience to understand it.
Knowledge about a topic that students learn through experience outside of the classroom.
A process in which students explore a problem, and create and work through a plan to solve the problem.
An instructional method where students create questions about a phenomenon, fact, or piece of literature, and work to answer their questions through an exploration of the topic.
In Loco Parentis
Refers to an individual who takes on the parent role and responsibilities for a child without formally adopting him/her.
The practice of using a single theme to teach a variety of subjects.
Workplace learning that gives students an opportunity to apply their knowledge and learn new skills.
Continuing professional education for educators. Also known as Staff Development or Professional Development.
A school employee assigned to help teachers with the education of students. Also known as an Instructional Assistant, Para-educator, or Para-professional.
Occurs when the teacher or computer software adjusts the instruction in response to the learner’s needs.
A way to organize curriculum in which content is drawn from two or more subject areas to focus on a particular topic or theme. Also referred to as Multidisciplinary Curriculum, Integration, or Integrated Curriculum.
International Baccalaureate (IB)
IB courses are offered as part of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, a rigorous two-year curriculum (geared primarily to students aged 16 to 19) that leads to a degree that is widely recognized internationally. It prepares students for a university education, with a specific focus on the ability to communicate with and understand people from other countries and cultures.
The process of verbally communicating information from one language into another language keeping the intent and meaning of the original information.
Refers to Kindergarten through 12th grade education.
Kindergarten Entry Age
The age when children are eligible to enroll in Kindergarten, usually at least 5 years old.
Organized instructional plans aligned to assessment targets. The concept of "planning backwards" suggests that you start your design work with the assessment targets and tasks fully described. Once that is accomplished, you design your lessons so students are fully instructed around the content and skills that will be called for in those assessments. It is a reverse of the model that asked for lesson plans and then later for assessment designs. The "backward planning" provides a clear lens for examining your instructional time to make certain that it is purposeful toward benchmarks and standards.
Like Group Reviews
Read Throughs that focus on a specific curricular area. For example, all of the teachers in the Language Arts Department might read through the course maps for their department to look for gaps, repetitions, and the articulation of skills.
Another term for English curriculum. The focus is on reading, speaking, listening, and writing skills.
Classroom in which students are encouraged to choose their own learning goals and projects. Also known as a Student-Centered Classroom.
An agreement between a student, teacher, parent (or other adult as a family member) detailing how the student will work toward specified learning objectives.
A condition that interferes with a student’s ability to learn. Also known as a Learning Disorder.
Differences in the way students learn best including through hearing, seeing, or doing the learning task.
Letter of Recommendation
A letter written by a teacher or other adult that supports a student’s application for a program, college, or a job.
(noun) An additional sum to property taxes within a school district for education-related expenditures. Residents of the school district vote on whether to pay these levy taxes.
(verb) To impose taxes.
LEP (Limited English Proficient) Students
Students who are reasonably fluent in another language but who have not yet achieved comparable skills in reading, writing, listening, or speaking English. Also known as English Language Learner (ELL).
Ability to read and write. Also refers to other types of knowledge and skills such as scientific literacy, computer literacy, etc.
The common or ordinary meaning of words.
The money a school district receives from local taxes, investments, and student activities.
Exclusion from school for more than 10 days.
A school practice where the teacher moves with his or her students to the next grade level, rather than sending them to another teacher the next school year.
A visual method for projecting yearly plans as well as monthly plans for the classroom based on a calendar sequence from month to month that describes the scope of what is taught. Maps include essential questions, content, skills, and assessments.
Mixed Group Reviews
Read Throughs of maps that involve teachers from different curricular areas. These types of reviews can help provide a better understanding of the curriculum across the school and/or district. They can also be used to identify where specific cross curricular skills or specific school and/or district goals are included in the curriculum.
To place students with disabilities into regular classrooms with the supports defined in their Individualized Education Plan.
An alternative public school that often focuses on a particular area of study, such as performing arts or science and technology, in addition to the core curriculum.
Any object, for example, blocks, toothpicks, or coins, that can be used to represent or model a problem situation or develop a mathematical concept.
Federal legislation that provides educational services to homeless students which are equal to all other enrolled students, and ensures that homeless children and youth have equal opportunities to enroll in, attend, and be successful in school.
Measurement of Student Progress (MSP)
Beginning in the 2009-10 school year, the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) for grades 3rd through 8th will be replaced by the Measurements of Student Progress (MSP) to identify students’ abilities in math (grades 3rd through 8th), reading (grades 3rd through 8th), science (grades 5th and 8th), and writing (grades 4th and 7th). The testing window for the MSP will be in May beginning spring 2010.
A strategy for conflict resolution which relies upon a neutral third party work to help parties arrive at an agreed upon compromise.
To serve as a role model for another person.
MESA (Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement)
The MESA program assists academically disadvantaged students, especially students of color, girls, and students in poverty, by helping them to prepare for and successfully complete a 4•year college program
Schools for students in the early adolescent years, generally grade 6th through grade 8th .
The practice of demonstrating to the learner how to do a task, so that the learner can copy the model. It often includes thinking aloud or talking about how to work through a task.
A classroom that includes children from different grades.
Generally refers to learning a particular topic area through the viewpoint of more than one subject.
A theory of intelligence developed in the 1980s by Howard Gardner that broadly defines intelligence beyond mathematical and linguistic, to include musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and intrapersonal.
The core elements that must be taught in the curriculum.
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
Also called “the Nation’s Report Card,” this federal test uses groups of students in grades 4th , 8th and 12th from around the country to measure progress in reading, mathematics, science, writing, U.S. history, civics, geography, and the arts. Scores are reported nationally and by state, but not for individual students or schools.
A program for students in grades 6th through 12th with the goal to help students make plans, set class schedules, and prepare for life beyond high school.
Public schools nearest to students’ homes as determined by school district attendance boundaries.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
A federal law that requires yearly student testing, consequences for schools or districts that do not meet standards, and requires all teachers and assistants to be highly qualified.
Messages sent by way of gestures and other body language, and drawings.
Notification of an action that usually contains information about legal rights to appeal a decision.
Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI)
The primary state agency charged with overseeing K-12 education in Washington State.
Office of the Education Ombudsman (OEO)
A state agency that helps resolve problems and disputes between families and schools. (www.waparentslearn.org)
A person that helps resolve conflict or disputes.
On-Time Graduation rate
The number of students who started grade 9th in the fall of a particular year and are expected to graduate four years later.
A question that can be answered in more than one way and may have more than one correct answer.
What students are supposed to know and be able to do.
The most important standards.
Professional/Implementation Development Map
Is an organizational tool that using the mapping format to develop a yearlong plan for implementation. It includes the training times, the essential questions, the content to be taught, the skills that participants should demonstrate, the products or evidence that will be produced during the training, and the assignment(s) that participants should complete prior to the next training.
Professional Learning Communities (PLCs)
A conceptual model developed by Richard DuFour and his colleagues for transforming schools. It focuses on the following principles A Shared Mission, Vision, Values, and Goals; Collaborative Teams; Collective Inquiry; Action Orientations and Experimentations, Continuous Improvement, and Results Orientation.
A map that has been created prior to teaching a course or subject and then revised on an ongoing basis as the school year progresses.
The participation of parents in the education of their children.
Parent Teacher Association (PTA)
A national, nonprofit organization, independent of the public school system that supports family involvement in schools and advocates for children. When student members are included, the name often becomes PTSA or Parent Teacher Student Association.
Parent Teacher Conference
A meeting where the parents and the teacher of a particular student discuss present and future academic progress.
Parent-Teacher Organization (PTO)
A local, school-based, organization of parents, and others to support family and public involvement in the school and advocate for students.
The art or profession of teaching.
Programs in which students are trained in conflict resolution and assist other students to work through problems without using violence.
A test that determines what students know through their ability to perform certain tasks.
The skills or knowledge that will be evaluated as a student completes a task.
Activities, exercises, or problems that require students to show what they can do.
Expenditures made by schools, a school district, or the state divided by the total number of students in the school, school district, or state.
Petition for Readmission
A request to have a student return to school before the end of an expulsion or suspension.
The ability to identify and combine individual sounds (phonemes) into spoken words.
An instructional strategy used to teach reading. It helps beginning readers by teaching them letter-sound relationships and having them sound out words.
A dictionary that defines words using pictures and graphics.
A skills test given to new students to determine what class or courses are best for their abilities and interests.
Plank A level indicating the policies of a particular political party, Protecting the Environment Plonker A nice term for an idiot
A piece of legislation, norm, or regulation.
A building, often with one or two rooms, that is used as a classroom and can be moved when it is no longer needed.
A collection of work that demonstrates and documents the student's learning progress over time. It might include writing samples, examples of math problems, and results of science experiments.
A course that must be completed before a student is allowed to register for a more advanced course.
A student's first language. The language spoken at home.
The certificated hired by the Superintendent to manage the day-to-day business of the school, supervise and evaluate school staff.
Programs that allow teachers or administrators to acquire the knowledge and skills they need to perform their jobs successfully. Also known as Inservice.
The ability to do something at grade level.
Pictures or words to which a student responds orally or in writing.
The practice of providing instruction in small groups outside of the regular classroom in order to give particular students additional learning opportunities.
An action to be done by an individual found to be in violation of a court order.
An exercise where students quickly write down everything they know about a topic.
The number or amount constituting a proportional share.
The repeated statement from a person or from text. When written, it is enclosed in quotation marks.
The minimum number of members of a group required to be present at a meeting in order to make decisions for an organization.
Read Through Process
The level of difficulty in a written passage.
Materials for students to refer to in order to check spelling, word meaning, grammar, etc., such as picture dictionaries and/or bilingual dictionaries.
Instruction, usually in addition to regular classroom learning, that provide additional time or attention for a student to learn what’s expected at their grade level.
The record of student attendance and grades for each grading period and the entire school year. Student report cards are sent home for parent review each grading period.
Response to Intervention (RTI)
A tool that helps educators identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, provide evidence-based instructional strategies, monitor student progress, and adjust the interventions in response to students’ reaction to the intervention.
A grading or scoring system that lists what work students must show to be proficient. Also called a Scoring Guide.
A college preparation option that permits students in grades 11th and 12th to take courses on local community and technical college campuses and earn credit toward both high school graduation and a college degree.
School based Support Structures
Key programmatic structures that have a direct effect on curriculum, assessment, and instruction Schedule (daily, annual, long-term), grouping of students (within classrooms, throughout the institution, and by class size), grouping of personnel (into teams, departments, and roles).
Seven Essentials Strategies for Integrating Literacy
Are specific strategies for integrating critical language skills across the curriculum identified by Heidi Hayes Jacobs. The strategies include revising and expanding the role of all teaches so they incorporate speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities with all learners in all subjects; organizing vocabulary into three distinctive types (high-frequency words, specialized terminology, and embellishing words) with specific instructional approaches in every classroom; developing creative note taking strategies that cause students to extract and react to information; designing and employing a consistent editing and revising framework for writing K-12; assessing formal speaking skills through the use of discussion approaches; employing technical instruction to develop the human voice and body as communication instruments; and using curriculum mapping as the school- and district-wide tool for implementing and monitoring the use of these strategies.
Seven-Step Curriculum Mapping Review Process
The process or sequence developed by Heidi Hayes Jacobs for creating and analyzing curriculum maps in a school and/or district. The steps include Collecting the Data, The First Read Through, Small Like/Mixed-Group Review, Large Like/Mixed Group Review Comparisons, Determine Immediate Revision Points, Determine Points Requiring Some Research and Planning, and Plan for the Next Review Cycle.
Are the targeted proficiencies; technical actions and strategies.
Statements that reflect the larger outcomes that we expect all students to be able to demonstrate before they leave our school. Most State Departments of Education have already established standards. Districts often add to those standards based on their local needs.
Another word for punishment.
An instructional technique in which the teacher breaks a complex task into smaller tasks and supports students as they learn, and then gradually shifts responsibility for learning to the students.
A system of school governance by which many school level decisions are made by the individual school rather than at district or other agency level. Also known as Site-Based Management or Site-Based Decision Making.
The school board is formed by School Board Directors or members. They set goals and policy, hire and supervise the Superintendent, and manage the finances of the school district.
School Board Directors
Citizens who live within a school district and are elected by other citizens to be part of the school board of directors.
The opportunity for families to choose which schools their children will attend.
The values, cultures, safety practices, and organizational structures that cause a school community to function and react in particular ways. Also knows as School Climate or School Environment.
Any day, including a partial day, when students attend school for instruction.
The organization responsible for providing free public education for school-age children residing within a specific area of a city, county, or state.
Collaborative relationships between educators and family members based on mutual respect, trust, equality and shared goals that support and focus on student academic success.
School Improvement Plan (SIP)
The long-term plan schools create with staff and parents to ensure that all students are achieving at high levels.
School Improvement Status
The consequences faced by schools and districts that do not meet adequate yearly progress (AYP) required by No Child Left Behind federal legislation.
The basic background and knowledge that children are usually expected to have upon entering kindergarten.
Any information about a student kept by the school.
A curriculum that integrates academic study with up-to-date career and technical education and work-readiness skills.
Research about educational programs and activities that uses systemic and objective procedures that provide results considered reliable and valid.
Section 504 Plan
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 extended civil rights to people with disabilities. It allows for reasonable accommodations as necessary for each student. Services, accommodations, and program modifications for students who qualify under Section 504 are outlined in a document called “504 Plan.”
Student recognizes and corrects error without input from others.
Learners' beliefs about their capacity of succeeding when learning specific topics or tasks.
An affective or emotional reaction to the self.
A way of communicating that uses signs made with the hands, facial expressions, and body movements.
Words that a reader can immediately read without having to decode. Also known as Sight Words.
Refers to a day that schools are closed because of unsafe winter weather. It can also refer to the day added to the school calendar that replaces the missed school time.
Includes the subjects of civics, geography, economics, history, and the skills of research, reasoning, and analysis that students should be able to use in their studies of these subjects.
The practice of promoting students to the next grade whether or not they have accomplished the goals of their current grade.
Instruction provided for students with disabilities according to the requirements of the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). (See also Special Education Glossary section of this publication)
Special Needs Students
Students who require special instructional programs to reach their learning potential.
Standardized Achievement Tests (SAT)
A test widely used as a college entrance examination. Also known as the SAT Reasoning Test (formerly called the Scholastic Aptitude Test).
A test provided in the same format for all who take it.
Statements of what students should know and be able to demonstrate.
A piece of legislation, law.
The critical parts of a story include character, setting, plot, problem, solution.
Classroom in which students are encouraged to choose their own learning goals and projects. Also known as Learner-centered Classroom.
Student Learning Plan (SLP)
A formal education document to provide regular communication to parents about the student’s continued academic progress and to assure that students are on track for high school graduation.
A variation of the parent-teacher conference in which the student prepares for the conference and leads it by showing the parents or family members samples of her work and discussing areas of strengths and weaknesses.
Student Study Team
A team of educators and school staff that comes together at the request of a classroom teacher, parent, or counselor to develop a support system to meet the needs of a particular student. Also referred to as a Multi-disciplinary Team or Student Intervention Team.
A teacher in training whose practice teaching is supervised by certificated staff or teacher.
A certified teacher who teaches classes when the regular teacher is absent.
A condensed form of a particular piece of information.
An official call or notice to attend court at a specific date and time for a particular purpose.
The person hired by the School Board to manage the day-to-day business of the school district. The superintendent evaluates other district administrators and principals.
Superintendent of Public Instruction
The individual elected by the state’s voters to lead the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI).
Additional instruction to basic education.
A disciplinary action that removes a student from school for a definite period of time. Long-term suspensions last for more than 10 days; short term suspensions last fewer than 10 days.
An outline and description of a course.
Targeted Work Groups
Task forces that are organized flexibly to respond to specific emerging needs. When the work of the task force is completed, it is disbanded.
21st Century Skills
Are skills students need to be successful in the 21st century. They include cross-curricular skills and learning to learn skills.
Official state recognition that a person is meets state standards and is qualified to be a teacher in Washington’s public schools.
An arrangement by which two or more teachers teach the same group of students.
The legal provision that people in certain positions may be fired only for specific cause.
A unit of study that uses a specific theme. Sometimes thematic units include all core subject areas.
Think, Pair, Share
A cooperative learning strategy where students first think about a topic, pair with another student to discuss their ideas, and then share with the whole class.
A federal program that provides funds to improve the academic achievement for educationally disadvantaged students who score below the 50th percentile on standardized tests.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
A language-learning approach that emphasizes the use of physical activity to increase vocabulary retention.
A teaching practice that groups students to receive instruction according to their abilities.
A copy of a student's permanent school record that shows courses taken, grades, graduation status, and attendance and often includes assessments such as PSAT, SAT, ACT. Also known as Student Records.
Transfer of Learning
The ability to take previously learned knowledge or skills and apply them to new situations.
The process of transcribing written information from one language into another language keeping the meaning and intent of the original information.
Paperwork submitted by a school district to juvenile court listing the number of school days missed by the student and the actions taken by the district to help the student return to school. This paperwork must be submitted before the student can be summoned to juvenile court for a hearing.
Youth ages 8 to 18 who do not attend school every day as required by Washington State law.
Person who provides extra help for students with their schoolwork. A tutor may be another student or an adult.
Understanding by Design
Is a set of ideas and practices that helps you think more purposefully and carefully about the nature of any design that has understanding as its goal. It is based on the work of Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins and focuses on the principles of “Backwards Design”.
Curricular units aligned to standards that encompass some of the major areas of focus in a given developmental period. They include the essential questions, content and skills that will be addressed, specific lessons that will be used, and assessments that will be required.
Process of clearly defining the critical content and skills embedded in a standard that students need to know and be able to demonstrate to show mastery of the standard.
Unit of Study
A segment of instruction focused on a particular topic.
An institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects in both undergraduate and postgraduate education.
alert to injustice in society, especially racist
A school calendar that gives students shorter breaks throughout the year, instead of a traditional three-month summer break.
School district policy that defines specific punishment for students who break certain rules.
For those students that presented work on English we gathered a lot of useful reference information that became a STUDENT's COMPENDIUM here are some samples of student work
Please note there are some excellent links to assist with these pages
see at the end for the links for further information.
Please note there are some excellent links to assist with these pages
see at the end for the links for further information.
Death Diminutives Famous Figurative Expressions Gender Geographical Gods and Goddesses Government Grammar and Syntax Human Relationships Inventions Kings and Queens Literary Sentences Marriage Medical Metaphors Miscellaneous Nouns Names Nature Negatives Numbers Opposites Other Patron Saints Places Possessive Case Phobias Professions Proverbs Science & Arts Scientific Terms Seven Wonders Similies Thesaurus Synonyms War Words Wedding Witty Sayings Words to Verbs Other Home
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Page last updated 2nd March 2020