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common

Tutorial

resources

Understanding words

Incorrect Use of Words

Thesaurus of Words

common

 

Most of the Examination papers in English contain a question on the use of words of similar sound but different in meaning. The question usually takes a form something like the following:

Use these words in sentences to show that you know their meanings:
aisle     diary    principal          stationary         compliment

isle       dairy    principle          stationery         complement

A comprehensive list of these words is found in most good spelling books and it is not intended to repeat these here.

It is, however, important for the student to remember that when he is asked to use these words in sentences in order to illustrate their meaning, his sentences should be explicit enough as to leave no doubt in the examiner's mind that the writer knows the exact meaning of the words which he is using.

Take for example the words stationary, stationery. When used in the following sentences the meaning is not fully brought out.

(a) The bus is stationary, (b) I bought some stationery at the store.

Sentences (c) and (d) however, leave no doubt in the reader's mind that the writer is fully acquainted with the meaning of the words:

Wait until the bus is stationary before attempting to get off.

I will need a good deal of stationery to write all these letters.

Note also that it is a good plan to underline the significant word in the sentence.

 

see also Commonly Confused Words

 

thesaurus

abandon

abandoned, abandoning, abandonment, abandons, e.g.

abandon

abstract

abstraction, abstractions, abstractly, abstracts, e.g.

abstract

academy

academia, academic, academically, academics, academies, e.g.

academy

access

accessed, accesses, accessibility, accessible, accessing, inaccessible

access

accommodate

accommodated, accommodates, accommodating, accommodation

accommodate

accompany

accompanied, accompanies, accompaniment, accompanying, unaccompanied

accompany

accumulate

accumulated, accumulating, accumulation, accumulates

accumulate

accurate

accuracy, accurately, inaccuracy, inaccuracies, inaccurate

accurate

achieve

achievable, achieved, achievement, achievements, achieves, achieving

achieve

acknowledge

acknowledged, acknowledges, acknowledging, acknowledgement, acknowledgements

acknowledge

acquire

acquired, acquires, acquiring, acquisition, acquisitions

acquire

adapt

adaptability, adaptable, adaptation, adaptations, adapted, adapting, adaptive, adapts

adapt

adequate

adequacy, adequately, inadequacies, inadequacy, inadequate, inadequately

adequate

adjacent

 

adjacent

adjust

adjusted, adjusting, adjustment, adjustments, adjusts, readjust, readjusted, readjusting, readjustment, readjustments, readjusts

adjust

administrate

administrates, administration, administrations, administrative, administratively, administrator, administrators

administrate

adult

adulthood, adults

adult

advocate

advocacy, advocated, advocates, advocating

advocate

affect

affected, affecting, affective, affectively, affects, unaffected

affect

aggregate

aggregated, aggregates, aggregating, aggregation

aggregate

aid

aided, aiding, aids, unaided

aid

albeit

 

albeit

allocate

allocated, allocates, allocating, allocation, allocations

allocate

alter

alterable, alteration, alterations, altered, altering, alternate, alternating, alters, unalterable, unaltered

alter

alternative

alternatively, alternatives

alternative

ambiguous

ambiguities, ambiguity, unambiguous, unambiguously

ambiguous

amend

amended, amending, amendment, amendments, amends

amend

analogy

analogies, analogous

analogy

analyse

analysed, analyser, analysers, analyses, analysing, analysis, analyst, analysts, analytic, analytical, analytically

analyse

annual

annually

annual

anticipate

anticipated, anticipates, anticipating, anticipation, unanticipated

anticipate

apparent

apparently

apparent

append

appendix, appended, appends, appending, appendices, appendixes

append

appreciate

appreciable, appreciably, appreciated, appreciates, appreciating, appreciation, unappreciated

appreciate

approach

approachable, approached, approaches, approaching, unapproachable

approach

appropriate

appropriacy, appropriately, appropriateness, inappropriacy, inappropriate, inappropriately

appropriate

approximate

approximated, approximately, approximates, approximating, approximation, approximations

approximate

arbitrary

arbitrariness, arbitrarily

arbitrary

area

areas

area

aspect

aspects

aspect

assemble

assembled, assembles, assemblies, assembling, assembly

assemble

assess

assessable, assessed, assesses, assessing, assessment, assessments, reassess, reassessed, reassessing, reassessment, unassessed

assess

assign

assigned, assigning, assignment, assignments, assigns, reassign, reassigned, reassigning, reassigns, unassigned

assign

assist

assistance, assistant, assistants, assisted, assisting, assists, unassisted

assist

assume

assumed, assumes, assuming, assumption, assumptions

assume

assure

assurance, assurances, assured, assuredly, assures, assuring

assure

attach

attached, attaches, attaching, attachment, attachments, unattached

attach

attain

attainable, attained, attaining, attainment, attainments, attains, unattainable

attain

attitude

attitudes

attitude

attribute

attributable, attributed, attributes, attributing, attribution

attribute

author

authored, authoring, authors, authorship

author

authority

authoritative, authorities

authority

automate

automatic, automated, automates, automating, automatically, automation

automate

available

availability, unavailable

available

aware

awareness, unaware

aware

behalf

 

behalf

benefit

beneficial, beneficiary, beneficiaries, benefited, benefiting, benefits

benefit

bias

biased, biases, biasing, unbiased

bias

bond

bonded, bonding, bonds

bond

brief

brevity, briefed, briefing, briefly, briefs

brief

bulk

bulky

bulk

capable

capabilities, capability, incapable

capable

capacity

capacities, incapacitate, incapacitated

capacity

category

categories, categorisation, categorise, categorised, categorises, categorising, categorizing

category

cease

ceased, ceaseless, ceases, ceasing

cease

challenge

challenged, challenger, challengers, challenges, challenging

challenge

channel

channelled, channelling, channels

channel

chapter

chapters

chapter

chart

charted, charting, charts, uncharted

chart

chemical

chemically, chemicals

chemical

circumstance

circumstances

circumstance

cite

citation, citations, cited, citing, cites

cite

civil

 

civil

clarify

clarification, clarified, clarifies, clarifying, clarity

clarify

classic

classical, classics

classic

clause

clauses

clause

code

coded, codes, coding

code

coherent

coherence, coherently, incoherent, incoherently

coherent

coincide

coincided, coincides, coinciding, coincidence, coincidences, coincident, coincidental

coincide

collapse

collapsed, collapses, collapsible, collapsing

collapse

colleague

colleagues

colleague

commence

commenced, commences, commencement, commencing, recommences, recommenced, recommencing

commence

comment

commentaries, commentary, commentator, commentators, commented, commenting, comments

comment

commission

commissioned, commissioner, commissioners, commissioning, commissions

commission

commit

commitment, commitments, commits, committed, committing

commit

commodity

commodities

commodity

communicate

communicable, communicated, communicates, communicating, communication, communications, communicative, communicatively, uncommunicative

communicate

community

communities

community

compatible

compatibility, incompatibility, incompatible

compatible

compensate

compensated, compensates, compensating, compensation, compensations, compensatory

compensate

compile

compilation, compilations, compiled, compiles, compiling

compile

complement

complementary, complemented, complementing, complements

complement

complex

complexities, complexity

complex

component

componentry, components

component

compound

compounded, compounding, compounds

compound

comprehensive

comprehensively

comprehensive

comprise

comprised, comprises, comprising

comprise

compute

computation, computational, computations, computable, computer, computed, computerised, computers, computing

compute

conceive

conceivable, conceivably, conceived, conceives, conceiving, inconceivable, inconceivably

conceive

concentrate

concentrated, concentrates, concentrating, concentration

concentrate

concept

conception, concepts, conceptual, conceptualisation, conceptualise, conceptualised, conceptualises, conceptualising, conceptually

concept

conclude

concluded, concludes, concluding, conclusion, conclusions, conclusive, conclusively, inconclusive, inconclusively

conclude

concurrent

concurrently

concurrent

conduct

conducted, conducting, conducts

conduct

confer

conference, conferences, conferred, conferring, confers

confer

confine

confined, confines, confining, unconfined

confine

confirm

confirmation, confirmed, confirming, confirms

confirm

conflict

conflicted, conflicting, conflicts

conflict

conform

conformable, conformability, conformance, conformation, conformed, conforming, conformist, conformists, conformity, conforms, nonconformist, nonconformists, nonconformity, non-conformist, non-conformists, non-conformity

conform

consent

consensus, consented, consenting, consents

consent

consequent

consequence, consequences, consequently

consequent

considerable

considerably

considerable

consist

consisted, consistency, consistent, consistently, consisting, consists, inconsistencies, inconsistency, inconsistent

consist

constant

constancy, constantly, constants, inconstancy, inconstantly

constant

constitute

constituencies, constituency, constituent, constituents, constituted, constitutes, constituting, constitution, constitutions, constitutional, constitutionally, constitutive, unconstitutional

constitute

constrain

constrained, constraining, constrains, constraint, constraints, unconstrained

constrain

construct

constructed, constructing, construction, constructions, constructive, constructs, reconstruct, reconstructed, reconstructing, reconstruction, reconstructs

construct

consult

consultancy, consultant, consultants, consultation, consultations, consultative, consulted, consults, consulting

consult

consume

consumed, consumer, consumers, consumes, consuming, consumption

consume

contact

contactable, contacted, contacting, contacts

contact

contemporary

contemporaries

contemporary

context

contexts, contextual, contextualise, contextualised, contextualising, uncontextualised

context

contract

contracted, contracting, contractor, contractors, contracts

contract

contradict

contradicted, contradicting, contradiction, contradictions, contradictory, contradicts

contradict

contrary

contrarily

contrary

contrast

contrasted, contrasting, contrastive, contrasts

contrast

contribute

contributed, contributes, contributing, contribution, contributions, contributor, contributors

contribute

controversy

controversies, controversial, controversially, uncontroversial

controversy

convene

convention, convenes, convened, convening, conventional, conventionally, conventions, unconventional

convene

converse

conversely

converse

convert

conversion, conversions, converted, convertible, converting, converts

convert

convince

convinced, convinces, convincing, convincingly, unconvinced

convince

cooperate

cooperated, cooperates, cooperating, cooperation, cooperative, cooperatively, co-operate, co-operated, co-operates, co-operation, co-operative, co-operatively

cooperate

coordinate

coordinated, coordinates, coordinating, coordination, coordinator, coordinators, co-ordinate, co-ordinated, co-ordinates, co-ordinating, co-ordination, co-ordinator, co-ordinators

coordinate

core

cores, coring, cored

core

corporate

corporates, corporation, corporations

corporate

correspond

corresponded, correspondence, corresponding, correspondingly, corresponds

correspond

couple

coupled, coupling, couples

couple

create

created, creates, creating, creation, creations, creative, creatively, creativity, creator, creators, recreate, recreated, recreates, recreating

create

credit

credited, crediting, creditor, creditors, credits

credit

criteria

criterion

criteria

crucial

crucially

crucial

culture

cultural, culturally, cultured, cultures, uncultured

culture

currency

currencies

currency

cycle

cycled, cycles, cyclic, cyclical, cycling

cycle

data

 

data

debate

debatable, debated, debates, debating

debate

decade

decades

decade

decline

declined, declines, declining

decline

deduce

deduced, deduces, deducing, deduction, deductions

deduce

define

definable, defined, defines, defining, definition, definitions, redefine, redefined, redefines, redefining, undefined

define

definite

definitely, definitive, indefinite, indefinitely

definite

demonstrate

demonstrable, demonstrably, demonstrated, demonstrates, demonstrating, demonstration, demonstrations, demonstrative, demonstratively, demonstrator, demonstrators

demonstrate

denote

denotation, denotations, denoted, denotes, denoting

denote

deny

deniable, denial, denials, denied, denies, denying, undeniable

deny

depress

depressed, depresses, depressing, depression

depress

derive

derivation, derivations, derivative, derivatives, derived, derives, deriving

derive

design

designed, designer, designers, designing, designs

design

despite

 

despite

detect

detectable, detected, detecting, detection, detective, detectives, detector, detectors, detects

detect

deviate

deviated, deviates, deviating, deviation, deviations

deviate

device

devices

device

devote

devoted, devotedly, devotes, devoting, devotion, devotions

devote

differentiate

differentiated, differentiates, differentiating, differentiation

differentiate

dimension

dimensional, dimensions, multidimensional

dimension

diminish

diminished, diminishes, diminishing, diminution, undiminished

diminish

discrete

discretely, discretion, discretionary, indiscrete, indiscretion

discrete

discriminate

discriminated, discriminates, discriminating, discrimination

discriminate

displace

displaced, displacement, displaces, displacing

displace

display

displayed, displaying, displays

display

dispose

disposable, disposal, disposed, disposes, disposing

dispose

distinct

distinction, distinctions, distinctive, distinctively, distinctly, indistinct, indistinctly

distinct

distort

distorted, distorting, distortion, distortions, distorts

distort

distribute

distributed, distributing, distribution, distributional, distributions, distributive, distributor, distributors, redistribute, redistributed, redistributes, redistributing, redistribution

distribute

diverse

diversely, diversification, diversified, diversifies, diversify, diversifying, diversity

diverse

document

documentation, documented, documenting, documents

document

domain

domains

domain

domestic

domestically, domesticate, domesticated, domesticating, domestics

domestic

dominate

dominance, dominant, dominated, dominates, dominating, domination

dominate

draft

drafted, drafting, drafts, redraft, redrafted, redrafting, redrafts

draft

drama

dramas, dramatic, dramatically, dramatise, dramatised, dramatising, dramatises, dramatisation, dramatisations, dramatist, dramatists, dramatization, dramatizations, dramatizing

drama

duration

 

duration

dynamic

dynamically, dynamics

dynamic

economy

economic, economical, economically, economics, economies, economist, economists, uneconomical

economy

edit

edited, editing, edition, editions, editor, editorial, editorials, editors, edits

edit

element

elements

element

eliminate

eliminated, eliminates, eliminating, elimination

eliminate

emerge

emerged, emergence, emergent, emerges, emerging

emerge

emphasis

emphasise, emphasised, emphasising, emphatic, emphatically

emphasis

empirical

empirically, empiricism

empirical

enable

enabled, enables, enabling

enable

encounter

encountered, encountering, encounters

encounter

energy

energetic, energetically, energies

energy

enforce

enforced, enforcement, enforces, enforcing

enforce

enhance

enhanced, enhancement, enhances, enhancing

enhance

enormous

enormity, enormously

enormous

ensure

ensured, ensures, ensuring

ensure

entity

entities

entity

environment

environmental, environmentalist, environmentalists, environmentally, environments

environment

equate

equated, equates, equating, equation, equations

equate

equip

equipment, equipped, equipping, equips

equip

equivalent

equivalence

equivalent

erode

eroded, erodes, eroding, erosion

erode

error

erroneous, erroneously, errors

error

establish

disestablish, disestablished, disestablishes, disestablishing, disestablishment, established, establishes, establishing, establishment, establishments

establish

estate

estates

estate

estimate

estimated, estimates, estimating, estimation, estimations, over-estimate, overestimate, overestimated, overestimates, overestimating, underestimate, underestimated, underestimates, underestimating

estimate

ethic

ethical, ethically, ethics, unethical

ethic

ethnic

ethnicity

ethnic

evaluate

evaluated, evaluates, evaluating, evaluation, evaluations, evaluative, re-evaluate, re-evaluated, re-evaluates, re-evaluating, re-evaluation

evaluate

eventual

eventuality, eventually

eventual

evident

evidenced, evidence, evidential, evidently

evident

evolve

evolution, evolved, evolving, evolves, evolutionary, evolutionist, evolutionists

evolve

exceed

exceeded, exceeding, exceeds

exceed

exclude

excluded, excludes, excluding, exclusion, exclusionary, exclusionist, exclusions, exclusive, exclusively

exclude

exhibit

exhibited, exhibiting, exhibition, exhibitions, exhibits

exhibit

expand

expanded, expanding, expands, expansion, expansionism, expansive

expand

expert

expertise, expertly, experts

expert

explicit

explicitly

explicit

exploit

exploitation, exploited, exploiting, exploits

exploit

export

exported, exporter, exporters, exporting, exports

export

expose

exposed, exposes, exposing, exposure, exposures

expose

external

externalisation, externalise, externalised, externalises, externalising, externality

external

extract

extracted, extracting, extraction, extracts

extract

facilitate

facilitated, facilitates, facilities, facilitating, facilitation, facilitator, facilitators, facility

facilitate

factor

factored, factoring, factors

factor

feature

featured, features, featuring

feature

federal

federation, federations

federal

fee

fees

fee

file

filed, files, filing

file

final

finalise, finalised, finalises, finalising, finality, finally, finals

final

finance

financed, finances, financial, financially, financier, financiers, financing

finance

finite

infinite, infinitely

finite

flexible

flexibility, inflexible, inflexibility

flexible

fluctuate

fluctuated, fluctuates, fluctuating, fluctuation, fluctuations

fluctuate

focus

focused, focuses, focusing, refocus, refocused, refocuses, refocusing

focus

format

formatted, formatting, formats

format

formula

formulae, formulas, formulate, formulated, formulating, formulation, formulations, reformulate, reformulated, reformulating, reformulation, reformulations

formula

forthcoming

 

forthcoming

found

founded, founder, founders, founding, unfounded

found

foundation

foundations

foundation

framework

frameworks

framework

function

functional, functionally, functioned, functioning, functions

function

fund

funded, funder, funders, funding, funds

fund

fundamental

fundamentally

fundamental

furthermore

 

furthermore

gender

genders

gender

generate

generated, generates, generating

generate

generation

generations

generation

globe

global, globally, globalisation, globalization

globe

goal

goals

goal

grade

graded, grades, grading

grade

grant

granted, granting, grants

grant

guarantee

guaranteed, guaranteeing, guarantees

guarantee

guideline

guidelines

guideline

hence

 

hence

hierarchy

hierarchical, hierarchies

hierarchy

highlight

highlighted, highlighting, highlights

highlight

hypothesis

hypotheses, hypothesise, hypothesised, hypothesises, hypothesising, hypothetical, hypothetically

hypothesis

identical

identically

identical

identify

identifiable, identification, identified, identifies, identifying, identities, identity, unidentifiable

identify

ideology

ideological, ideologically, ideologies

ideology

ignorant

ignorance, ignore, ignored, ignores, ignoring

ignorant

illustrate

illustrated, illustrates, illustrating, illustration, illustrations, illustrative

illustrate

image

imagery, images

image

immigrate

immigrant, immigrants, immigrated, immigrates, immigrating, immigration

immigrate

impact

impacted, impacting, impacts

impact

implement

implementation, implemented, implementing, implements

implement

implicate

implicated, implicates, implicating, implication, implications

implicate

implicit

implicitly

implicit

imply

implied, implies, implying

imply

impose

imposed, imposes, imposing, imposition

impose

incentive

incentives

incentive

incidence

incident, incidentally, incidents

incidence

incline

inclination, inclinations,inclined, inclines, inclining

incline

income

incomes

income

incorporate

incorporated, incorporates, incorporating, incorporation

incorporate

index

indexed, indexes, indexing

index

indicate

indicated, indicates, indicating, indication, indications, indicative, indicator, indicators

indicate

individual

individualised, individuality, individualism, individualist, individualists, individualistic, individually, individuals

individual

induce

induced, induces, inducing, induction

induce

inevitable

inevitability, inevitably

inevitable

infer

inference, inferences, inferred, inferring, infers

infer

infrastructure

infrastructures

infrastructure

inherent

inherently

inherent

inhibit

inhibited, inhibiting, inhibition, inhibitions, inhibits

inhibit

initial

initially

initial

initiate

initiated, initiates, initiating, initiation, initiations, initiative, initiatives, initiator, initiators

initiate

injure

injured, injures, injuries, injuring, injury, uninjured

injure

innovate

innovation, innovated, innovates, innovating, innovations, innovative, innovator, innovators

innovate

input

inputs

input

insert

inserted, inserting, insertion, inserts

insert

insight

insightful, insights

insight

inspect

inspected, inspecting, inspection, inspections, inspector, inspectors, inspects

inspect

instance

instances

instance

institute

instituted, institutes, instituting, institution, institutional, institutionalise, institutionalised, institutionalises, institutionalising, institutionally, institutions

institute

instruct

instruction, instructed, instructing, instructions, instructive, instructor, instructors, instructs

instruct

integral

 

integral

integrate

integrated, integrates, integrating, integration

integrate

integrity

 

integrity

intelligent

intelligence, intelligently, unintelligent

intelligent

intense

intensely, intenseness, intensification, intensified, intensifies, intensify, intensifying, intension, intensity, intensive, intensively

intense

interact

interacted, interacting, interaction, interactions, interactive, interactively, interacts

interact

intermediate

 

intermediate

internal

internalise, internalised, internalises, internalising, internally

internal

interpret

interpretation, interpretations, interpretative, interpreted, interpreting, interpretive, interprets, misinterpret, misinterpretation, misinterpretations, misinterpreted, misinterpreting, misinterprets, reinterpret, reinterpreted, reinterprets, reinterpreting, reinterpretation, reinterpretations

interpret

interval

intervals

interval

intervene

intervened, intervenes, intervening, intervention, interventions

intervene

intrinsic

intrinsically

intrinsic

invest

invested, investing, investment, investments, investor, investors, invests, reinvest, reinvested, reinvesting, reinvestment, reinvests

invest

investigate

investigated, investigates, investigating, investigation, investigations, investigative, investigator, investigators

investigate

invoke

invoked, invokes, invoking

invoke

involve

involved, involvement, involves, involving, uninvolved

involve

isolate

isolated, isolates, isolating, isolation, isolationism

isolate

issue

issued, issues, issuing

issue

item

itemisation, itemise, itemised, itemises, itemising, items

item

job

jobs

job

journal

journals

journal

justify

justifiable, justifiably, justification, justifications, justified, justifies, justifying, unjustified

justify

label

labelled, labelling, labels

label

labour

laboured, labouring, labours

labour

layer

layered, layering, layers

layer

lecture

lectured, lecturer, lecturers, lectures, lecturing

lecture

legal

illegal, illegality, illegally, legality, legally

legal

legislate

legislated, legislates, legislating, legislation, legislative, legislator, legislators, legislature

legislate

levy

levies

levy

liberal

liberalise, liberalism, liberalisation, liberalised, liberalises, liberalising, liberalization, liberate, liberated, liberates, liberation, liberations, liberating, liberator, liberators, liberally, liberals

liberal

licence

licences, license, licensed, licensing, licenses, unlicensed

licence

likewise

 

likewise

link

linkage, linkages, linked, linking, links

link

locate

located, locating, location, locations, relocate, relocated, relocates, relocating, relocation

locate

logic

illogical, illogically, logical, logically, logician, logicians

logic

maintain

maintained, maintaining, maintains, maintenance

maintain

major

majorities, majority

major

manipulate

manipulated, manipulates, manipulating, manipulation, manipulations, manipulative

manipulate

manual

manually, manuals

manual

margin

marginal, marginally, margins

margin

mature

immature, immaturity, maturation, maturational, matured, matures, maturing, maturity

mature

maximise

max, maximised, maximises, maximising, maximisation, maximum

maximise

mechanism

mechanisms

mechanism

media

 

media

mediate

mediated, mediates, mediating, mediation

mediate

medical

medically

medical

medium

 

medium

mental

mentality, mentally

mental

method

methodical, methodological, methodologies, methodology, methods

method

migrate

migrant, migrants, migrated, migrates, migrating, migration, migrations, migratory

migrate

military

 

military

minimal

minimalisation, minimalise, minimalises, minimalised, minimalising, minimalist, minimalists, minimalistic, minimally

minimal

minimise

minimised, minimises, minimising

minimise

minimum

 

minimum

ministry

ministered, ministering, ministerial, ministries

ministry

minor

minorities, minority, minors

minor

mode

modes

mode

modify

modification, modifications, modified, modifies, modifying, unmodified

modify

monitor

monitored, monitoring, monitors, unmonitored

monitor

motive

motivate, motivated, motivates, motivating, motivation, motivations, motives, unmotivated

motive

mutual

mutually

mutual

negate

negative, negated, negates, negating, negatively, negatives

negate

network

networked, networking, networks

network

neutral

neutralisation, neutralise, neutralised, neutralises, neutralising, neutrality

neutral

nevertheless

 

nevertheless

nonetheless

 

nonetheless

norm

norms

norm

normal

abnormal, abnormally, normalisation, normalise, normalised, normalises, normalising, normality, normally

normal

notion

notions

notion

notwithstanding

 

notwithstanding

nuclear

 

nuclear

objective

objectively, objectivity

objective

obtain

obtainable, obtained, obtaining, obtains, unobtainable

obtain

obvious

obviously

obvious

occupy

occupancy, occupant, occupants, occupation,occupational, occupations, occupied, occupier, occupiers, occupies, occupying

occupy

occur

occurred, occurrence, occurrences, occurring, occurs, reoccur, reoccurred, reoccurring, reoccurs

occur

odd

odds

odd

offset

offsets, offsetting

offset

ongoing

 

ongoing

option

optional, options

option

orient

orientate, orientated, orientates, orientation, orientating, oriented, orienting, orients, reorient, reorientation

orient

outcome

outcomes

outcome

output

outputs

output

overall

 

overall

overlap

overlapped, overlapping, overlaps

overlap

overseas

 

overseas

panel

panelled, panelling, panels

panel

paradigm

paradigms

paradigm

paragraph

paragraphing, paragraphs

paragraph

parallel

paralleled, parallels, unparalleled

parallel

parameter

parameters

parameter

participate

participant, participants, participated, participates, participating, participation, participatory

participate

partner

partners, partnership, partnerships

partner

passive

passively, passivity

passive

perceive

perceived, perceives, perceiving, perception, perceptions

perceive

percent

percentage, percentages

percent

period

periodic, periodical, periodically, periodicals, periods

period

persist

persisted, persistence, persistent, persistently, persisting, persists

persist

perspective

perspectives

perspective

phase

phased, phases, phasing

phase

phenomenon

phenomena, phenomenal

phenomenon

philosophy

philosopher, philosophers, philosophical, philosophically, philosophies, philosophise, philosophised, philosophises, philosophising

philosophy

physical

physically

physical

plus

pluses

plus

policy

policies

policy

portion

portions

portion

pose

posed, poses, posing

pose

positive

positively

positive

potential

potentially

potential

practitioner

practitioners

practitioner

precede

preceded, precedence, precedent, precedes, preceding, unprecedented

precede

precise

imprecise, precisely, precision

precise

predict

predictability, predictable, predictably, predicted, predicting, prediction, predictions, predicts, unpredictability, unpredictable

predict

predominant

predominance, predominantly, predominate, predominated, predominates, predominating

predominant

preliminary

preliminaries

preliminary

presume

presumably, presumed, presumes, presuming, presumption, presumptions, presumptuous

presume

previous

previously

previous

primary

primarily

primary

prime

primacy

prime

principal

principally

principal

principle

principled, principles, unprincipled

principle

prior

 

prior

priority

priorities, prioritisation, prioritise, prioritised, prioritises, prioritising

priority

proceed

procedural, procedure, procedures, proceeded, proceeding, proceedings, proceeds

proceed

process

processed, processes, processing

process

professional

professionally, professionals, professionalism

professional

prohibit

prohibited, prohibiting, prohibition, prohibitions, prohibitive, prohibits

prohibit

project

projected, projecting, projection, projections, projects

project

promote

promoted, promoter, promoters, promotes, promoting, promotion, promotions

promote

proportion

disproportion, disproportionate, disproportionately, proportional, proportionally, proportionate, proportionately, proportions

proportion

prospect

prospective, prospects

prospect

protocol

protocols

protocol

psychology

psychological, psychologically, psychologist, psychologists

psychology

publication

publications

publication

publish

published, publisher, publishers, publishes, publishing, unpublished

publish

purchase

purchased, purchaser, purchasers, purchases, purchasing

purchase

pursue

pursued, pursues, pursuing, pursuit, pursuits

pursue

qualitative

qualitatively

qualitative

quote

quotation, quotations, quoted, quotes, quoting

quote

radical

radically, radicals

radical

random

randomly, randomness

random

range

ranged, ranges, ranging

range

ratio

ratios

ratio

rational

irrational, rationalisation, rationalisations, rationalise, rationalised, rationalises, rationalising, rationalism, rationality, rationally

rational

react

reacted, reacts, reacting, reaction, reactionaries, reactionary, reactions, reactive, reactivate, reactivation, reactor, reactors

react

recover

recoverable, recovered, recovering, recovers, recovery

recover

refine

refined, refinement, refinements, refines, refining

refine

regime

regimes

regime

region

regional, regionally, regions

region

register

deregister, deregistered, deregistering, deregisters, deregistration, registered, registering, registers, registration

register

regulate

deregulated, deregulates, deregulating, deregulation, regulated, regulates, regulating, regulation,regulations, regulator, regulators, regulatory, unregulated

regulate

reinforce

reinforced, reinforcement, reinforcements, reinforces, reinforcing

reinforce

reject

rejected, rejecting, rejection, rejects, rejections

reject

relax

relaxation, relaxed, relaxes, relaxing

relax

release

released, releases, releasing

release

relevant

irrelevance, irrelevant, relevance

relevant

reluctance

reluctant, reluctantly

reluctance

rely

reliability, reliable, reliably, reliance, reliant, relied, relies, relying, unreliable

rely

remove

removable, removal, removals, removed, removes, removing

remove

require

required, requirement, requirements, requires, requiring

require

research

researched, researcher, researchers, researches, researching

research

reside

resided, residence, resident, residential, residents, resides, residing

reside

resolve

resolution, resolved, resolves, resolving, unresolved

resolve

resource

resourced, resourceful, resources, resourcing, unresourceful, under-resourced

resource

respond

responded, respondent, respondents, responding, responds, response, responses, responsive, responsiveness, unresponsive

respond

restore

restoration, restored, restores, restoring

restore

restrain

restrained, restraining, restrains, restraint, restraints, unrestrained

restrain

restrict

restricted, restricting, restriction, restrictions, restrictive, restrictively, restricts, unrestricted, unrestrictive

restrict

retain

retained, retaining, retainer, retainers, retains, retention, retentive

retain

reveal

revealed, revealing, reveals, revelation, revelations

reveal

revenue

revenues

revenue

reverse

reversal, reversed, reverses, reversible, reversing, reversals, irreversible

reverse

revise

revised, revises, revising, revision, revisions

revise

revolution

revolutionary, revolutionaries, revolutionise, revolutionised, revolutionises, revolutionising, revolutionist, revolutionists, revolutions

revolution

rigid

rigidities, rigidity, rigidly

rigid

role

roles

role

route

routed, routes, routing

route

scenario

scenarios

scenario

schedule

reschedule, rescheduled, reschedules, rescheduling, scheduled, schedules, scheduling, unscheduled

schedule

scheme

schematic, schematically, schemed, schemes, scheming

scheme

scope

 

scope

section

sectioned, sectioning, sections

section

sector

sectors

sector

secure

insecure, insecurities, insecurity, secured, securely, secures, securing, securities, security

secure

seek

seeking, seeks, sought

seek

select

selected, selecting, selection, selections, selective, selectively, selector, selectors, selects

select

sequence

sequenced, sequences, sequencing, sequential, sequentially

sequence

series

 

series

sex

sexes, sexism, sexual, sexuality, sexually

sex

shift

shifted, shifting, shifts

shift

significant

insignificant, insignificantly, significance, significantly, signified, signifies, signify, signifying

significant

similar

dissimilar, similarities, similarity, similarly

similar

simulate

simulated, simulates, simulating, simulation

simulate

site

sites

site

so-called

 

so-called

sole

solely

sole

somewhat

 

somewhat

source

sourced, sources, sourcing

source

specific

specifically, specification, specifications, specificity, specifics

specific

specify

specifiable, specified, specifies, specifying, unspecified

specify

sphere

spheres, spherical, spherically

sphere

stable

instability, stabilisation, stabilise, stabilised, stabilises, stabilising, stability, unstable

stable

statistic

statistician, statisticians, statistical, statistically, statistics

statistic

status

 

status

straightforward

 

straightforward

strategy

strategic, strategies, strategically, strategist, strategists

strategy

stress

stressed, stresses, stressful, stressing, unstressed

stress

structure

restructure, restructured, restructures, restructuring, structural, structurally, structured, structures, structuring, unstructured

structure

style

styled, styles, styling, stylish, stylise, stylised, stylises, stylising

style

submit

submission, submissions, submits, submitted, submitting

submit

subordinate

subordinates, subordination

subordinate

subsequent

subsequently

subsequent

subsidy

subsidiary, subsidies, subsidise, subsidised, subsidises, subsidising

subsidy

substitute

substituted, substitutes, substituting, substitution

substitute

successor

succession, successions, successive, successively, successors

successor

sufficient

sufficiency, insufficient, insufficiently, sufficiently

sufficient

sum

summation, summed, summing, sums

sum

summary

summaries, summarise, summarised, summarises, summarising, summarisation, summarisations

summary

supplement

supplementary, supplemented, supplementing, supplements

supplement

survey

surveyed, surveying, surveys

survey

survive

survival, survived, survives, surviving, survivor, survivors

survive

suspend

suspended, suspending, suspends, suspension

suspend

sustain

sustainable, sustainability, sustained, sustaining, sustains, sustenance, unsustainable

sustain

symbol

symbolic, symbolically, symbolise, symbolises, symbolised, symbolising, symbolism, symbols

symbol

tape

taped, tapes, taping

tape

target

targeted, targeting, targets

target

task

tasks

task

team

teamed, teaming, teams

team

technical

technically

technical

technique

techniques

technique

technology

technological, technologically

technology

temporary

temporarily

temporary

tense

tension, tensely, tenser, tensest, tensions

tense

terminate

terminal, terminals, terminated, terminates, terminating, termination, terminations

terminate

text

texts, textual

text

theme

themes, thematic, thematically

theme

theory

theoretical, theoretically, theories, theorist, theorists

theory

thereby

 

thereby

thesis

theses

thesis

topic

topical, topics

topic

trace

traceable, traced, traces, tracing

trace

tradition

non-traditional, traditional, traditionalist, traditionally, traditions

tradition

transfer

transferable, transference, transferred, transferring, transfers

transfer

transform

transformation, transformations, transformed, transforming, transforms

transform

transit

transited, transiting, transition, transitional, transitions, transitory, transits

transit

transmit

transmission, transmissions, transmitted, transmitting, transmits

transmit

transport

transportation, transported, transporter, transporters, transporting, transports

transport

trend

trends

trend

trigger

triggered, triggering, triggers

trigger

ultimate

ultimately

ultimate

undergo

undergoes, undergoing, undergone, underwent

undergo

underlie

underlay, underlies, underlying

underlie

undertake

undertaken, undertakes, undertaking, undertook

undertake

uniform

uniformity, uniformly

uniform

unify

unification, unified, unifies, unifying

unify

unique

uniquely, uniqueness

unique

utilise

utilisation, utilised, utilises, utilising, utiliser, utilisers, utility, utilities

utilise

valid

invalidate, invalidity, validate, validated, validating, validation, validity, validly

valid

vary

invariable, invariably, variability, variable, variables, variably, variance, variant, variants, variation, variations, varied, varies, varying

vary

vehicle

vehicles

vehicle

version

versions

version

via

 

via

violate

violated, violates, violating, violation, violations

violate

virtual

virtually

virtual

visible

visibility, visibly, invisible, invisibility

visible

vision

visions

vision

visual

visualise, visualised, visualised, visualising, visualisation, visually

visual

volume

volumes, vol

volume

voluntary

voluntarily, volunteer, volunteering, volunteered, volunteers

voluntary

welfare

 

welfare

whereas

 

whereas

whereby

 

whereby

widespread

 

widespread

 

Understanding Words

aberration
a state or condition markedly different from the norm
abject
of the most contemptible kind
abjure
formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief
abnegation
the denial and rejection of a doctrine or belief
abrogate
revoke formally
abscond
run away, often taking something or somebody along
abstruse
difficult to understand
accede
yield to another's wish or opinion
accost
approach and speak to someone aggressively or insistently
accretion
an increase by natural growth or addition
acumen
shrewdness shown by keen insight
adamant
impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, or reason
admonish
scold or reprimand; take to task
adumbrate
describe roughly or give the main points or summary of
adverse
in an opposing direction
advocate
a person who pleads for a person, cause, or idea
affluent
having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value
aggrandize
embellish; increase the scope, power, or importance of
alacrity
liveliness and eagerness
alias
a name that has been assumed temporarily
ambivalent
uncertain or unable to decide about what course to follow
amenable
disposed or willing to comply
amorphous
having no definite form or distinct shape
anachronistic
chronologically misplaced
anathema
a formal ecclesiastical curse accompanied by excommunication
annex
attach to
antediluvian
of or relating to the period before the biblical flood
antiseptic
thoroughly clean and free of disease-causing organisms
antithesis
exact opposite
apathetic
showing little or no emotion or animation
apocryphal
being of questionable authenticity
approbation
official acceptance or agreement
arbitrary
based on or subject to individual discretion or preference
arboreal
of or relating to or formed by trees
arcane
requiring secret or mysterious knowledge
archetypal
of an original type after which other things are patterned
arrogate
seize and take control without authority
ascetic
someone who practices self denial as a spiritual discipline
aspersion
a disparaging remark
assiduous
marked by care and persistent effort
atrophy
a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse
bane
something causing misery or death
bashful
self-consciously timid
beguile
influence by slyness
bereft
sorrowful through loss or deprivation
bilk
cheat somebody out of what is due, especially money
blandishment
flattery intended to persuade
bombastic
ostentatiously lofty in style
cajole
influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering
callous
emotionally hardened
calumny
a false accusation of an offense
camaraderie
the quality of affording easy familiarity and sociability
candor
the quality of being honest and straightforward
capitulate
surrender under agreed conditions
carouse
engage in boisterous, drunken merrymaking
carp
any of various freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae
caucus
meet to select a candidate or promote a policy
cavort
play boisterously
circumlocution
an indirect way of expressing something
circumscribe
draw a geometric figure around another figure
circumvent
surround so as to force to give up
clamor
utter or proclaim insistently and noisily
cleave
separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument
cobbler
a person who makes or repairs shoes
cogent
powerfully persuasive
cognizant
having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization
commensurate
corresponding in size or degree or extent
complement
something added to embellish or make perfect
compunction
a feeling of deep regret, usually for some misdeed
concomitant
following or accompanying as a consequence
conduit
a passage through which water or electric wires can pass
conflagration
a very intense and uncontrolled fire
congruity
the quality of agreeing; being suitable and appropriate
connive
form intrigues (for) in an underhand manner
consign
give over to another for care or safekeeping
constituent
one of the individual parts making up a composite entity
construe
make sense of; assign a meaning to
contentious
showing an inclination to disagree
contravene
go against, as of rules and laws
contrite
feeling or expressing pain or sorrow for sins or offenses
contusion
an injury in which the skin is not broken
convivial
occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company
corpulence
the property of excessive fatness
covet
wish, long, or crave for
cupidity
extreme greed for material wealth
dearth
an insufficient quantity or number
debacle
a sudden and complete disaster
debauch
a wild gathering involving excessive drinking
debunk
expose while ridiculing
defunct
no longer in force or use; inactive
demagogue
a leader who seeks support by appealing to popular passions
Demure
quiet, modest, reserved
denigrate
attack the good name and reputation of someone
Deride
to ridicule, laugh at with contempt
derivative
a compound obtained from another compound
despot
a cruel and oppressive dictator, a dictator with absolute power
diaphanous
so thin as to transmit light
didactic
instructive, especially excessively
Diligent
showing care in doing one's work
dirge
a song or hymn of mourning as a memorial to a dead person
disaffected
discontented as toward authority
discomfit
cause to lose one's composure
disparate
fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind
dispel
cause to separate and go in different directions
disrepute
the state of being held in low esteem
divisive
causing or characterized by disagreement or disunity
dogmatic
pertaining to a code of beliefs accepted as authoritative
dour
showing a brooding ill humor
duplicity
the act of deceiving or acting in bad faith
duress
compulsory force or threat
ebullient
joyously unrestrained
eclectic
selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas
edict
a formal or authoritative proclamation
egregious
conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible
Elated
full of high-spirited delight
elegy
a mournful poem; a lament for the dead
elicit
call forth, as an emotion, feeling, or response
Eloquent
expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively
Embezzle
to steal money by falsifying records
embezzlement
the fraudulent appropriation of funds or property
emend
make corrections to
emollient
a substance with a soothing effect when applied to the skin
Empathy
sensitivity to another's feelings as if they were one's own
empirical
derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
emulate
strive to equal or match, especially by imitating
enervate
weaken mentally or morally
enfranchise
grant freedom to, as from slavery or servitude
engender
call forth
Enmity
ill will; hatred; hostility
ephemeral
anything short-lived, as an insect that lives only for a day
epistolary
written in the form of letters or correspondence
equanimity
steadiness of mind under stress
equivocal
open to two or more interpretations
Erudite
learned or scholarly
espouse
choose and follow a theory, idea, policy, etc.
evanescent
tending to vanish like vapor
evince
give expression to
exacerbate
make worse
execrable
unequivocally detestable
exhort
spur on or encourage especially by cheers and shouts
exigent
demanding immediate attention
expedient
appropriate to a purpose
expiate
make amends for
expunge
remove by erasing or crossing out or as if by drawing a line
expurgate
edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate
extant
still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost
extol
praise, glorify, or honor, to praise, revere
extraneous
not belonging to that in which it is contained
Fabricate
to make up, invent
fallacious
containing or based on incorrect reasoning
fatuous
devoid of intelligence
Feral
Savage; wild
fetter
a shackle for the ankles or feet
Flabbergasted
Astounded
flagrant
conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible
foil
hinder or prevent, as an effort, plan, or desire
forbearance
good-natured tolerance of delay or incompetence
Forsake
to give up, renounce; to leave, abandon
fortuitous
lucky; occurring by happy chance
fractious
easily irritated or annoyed, troublesome
Furtive
secretive; sly
garrulous
full of trivial conversation
Gluttony
excessive eating or drinking
gourmand
a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess
grandiloquent
lofty in style
gratuitous
unnecessary and unwarranted, uncalled for; lacking good reason
hapless
unfortunate and deserving pity
Haughty
proud, arrogant
hegemony
the dominance or leadership of one social group over others
heterogenous
consisting of elements that are not of the same kind
Hypocrisy
Pretending to have feelings, beliefs, or virtues that one does not have.
iconoclast
someone who attacks cherished ideas or institutions
idiosyncratic
peculiar to the individual
Impeccable
perfect, flawless
impecunious
not having enough money to pay for necessities
Impertinent
insolent; rude
impetuous
characterized by undue haste and lack of thought
impinge
infringe upon
Implacable
incapable of being appeased or mitigated
Impudent
casually rude, insolent
impute
attribute or credit to
inane
devoid of intelligence
inchoate
only partly in existence; imperfectly formed
Incisive
clear and sharp in analysis or expression
incontrovertible
impossible to deny or disprove
incumbent
necessary as a duty or responsibility; morally binding
Indolent
lazy
Inept
not suitable or capable, unqualified
inexorable
impossible to prevent, resist, or stop
Infamy
notoriety, extreme ill repute
Inhibit
restrain; prohibit; retard or prevent
inimical
not friendly
injunction
a judicial remedy to prohibit a party from doing something
Innate
natural, inborn, inherent; built-in
inoculate
inject or treat with the germ of a disease to render immune
Insatiable
not capable of being fully satisfied
insidious
working or spreading in a hidden and usually injurious way
instigate
provoke or stir up
Insular
separated and narrow-minded; tight-knit, closed off
insurgent
in opposition to a civil authority or government
interlocutor
a person who takes part in a conversation
intimation
a slight suggestion or vague understanding
intransigent
impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, or reason
Intrepid
brave in the face of danger
inure
cause to accept or become hardened to
invective
abusive language used to express blame or censure
inveterate
habitual, stubbornly established by habit
irreverence
a mental attitude showing lack of due respect
Jubilant
extremely joyful
knell
the sound of a bell rung slowly to announce a death
laconic
brief and to the point
largesse
liberality in bestowing gifts
legerdemain
an illusory feat
libertarian
an advocate of freedom of thought and speech
licentious
lacking moral discipline
linchpin
a central cohesive source of support and stability
Lithe
Flexible, graceful.
litigant
a party to a lawsuit
Lurid
shocking; sensational
maelstrom
a powerful circular current of water
maudlin
effusively or insincerely emotional
maverick
someone who exhibits independence in thought and action, nonconformist person
mawkish
effusively or insincerely emotional
maxim
a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits, common saying expressing a principle of conduct
mendacious
given to lying
Meticulous
extremely careful about details
modicum
a small or moderate or token amount of something
morass
a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot
mores
the conventions embodying the fundamental values of a group
Morose
gloomy or sullen
multifarious
having many aspects
munificent
very generous
Myriad
a very large number
nadir
the lowest point of anything
negligent
characterized by undue lack of attention or concern
neophyte
any new participant in some activity
noisome
offensively malodorous
Nominal
insignificant, trifling
Novice
one who is just a beginner at some activity requiring skill and experience
noxious
injurious to physical or mental health
Nuance
a slight variation in meaning, tone, expression
obdurate
stubbornly persistent in wrongdoing
obfuscate
make obscure or unclear
Oblivious
lacking consciousness or awareness of something
Obsequitous
obeying/performing a service for someone in an overly attentive manner
obstreperous
noisily and stubbornly defiant
Obtuse
lacking quickness of sensibility or intellect
officious
intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner
onerous
burdensome or difficult to endure
ostensible
appearing as such but not necessarily so
ostracism
the act of excluding someone from society by general consent
palliate
lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of
panacea
hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases, an answer to all problems
paradigm
a standard or typical example
pariah
a person who is rejected from society or home
Parody
humorous or ridiculous imitation
partisan
a fervent and even militant proponent of something
paucity
an insufficient quantity or number
pejorative
expressing disapproval
pellucid
transparently clear; easily understandable
penchant
a strong liking, a tendency, partiality, or preference
penurious
excessively unwilling to spend
pernicious
exceedingly harmful
pert
characterized by a lightly saucy or impudent quality
pertinacious
stubbornly unyielding
Perusal
a careful examination, review
philanthropic
of or relating to charitable giving
phlegmatic
showing little emotion
pithy
concise and full of meaning
platitude
a trite or obvious remark
plaudit
enthusiastic approval
plenitude
a full supply
plethora
extreme excess, overabundance
portent
a sign of something about to happen
potentate
a ruler who is unconstrained by law
preclude
make impossible, especially beforehand
predilection
a predisposition in favor of something, or preferred way of doing something
preponderance
exceeding in heaviness; having greater weight
presage
a foreboding about what is about to happen
probity
complete and confirmed integrity
proclivity
a natural inclination
profligate
unrestrained by convention or morality
promulgate
state or announce
proscribe
command against
protean
taking on different forms
prurient
characterized by lust
puerile
displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity
pugnacious
ready and able to resort to force or violence
pulchritude
physical beauty, especially of a woman
punctilious
marked by precise accordance with details
quaint
charmingly attractively old-fashioned
quandary
state of uncertainty in a choice between unfavorable options
quixotic
not sensible about practical matters
Rash
hasty, incautious
recalcitrant
stubbornly resistant to authority or control
redoubtable
inspiring fear
Refurbish
to brighten, freshen or polish; to restore or improve
relegate
assign to a lower position
remiss
failing in what duty requires
reprieve
postpone the punishment of a convicted criminal
reprobate
a person without moral scruples
Repudiate
to reject, decline
requisition
an authoritative demand
rescind
cancel officially
rife
excessively abundant or plentiful
Salient
significant; conspicuous; standing out from the rest
sanctimonious
excessively or hypocritically pious
sanguine
confidently optimistic and cheerful
scurrilous
expressing offensive reproach
semaphore
an apparatus for visual signaling
serendipity
good luck in making unexpected and fortunate discoveries
sobriety
the state of being unaffected or not intoxicated by alcohol
solicitous
full of anxiety and concern
solipsism
the philosophical theory that the self is all that exists
spurious
plausible but false
staid
characterized by dignity and propriety, sedate, serious, self-restrained
stolid
having or revealing little emotion or sensibility
subjugate
make subservient; force to submit or subdue
Superfluous
exceeding what is sufficient or necessary
surfeit
indulge (one's appetite) to satiety
surreptitious
marked by quiet and caution and secrecy
swarthy
naturally having skin of a dark color
Sycophant
one who sucks up to others
Taciturn
Inclined to silence; reserved in speech; reluctant to join in conversation
tangential
of superficial relevance if any
tirade
a speech of violent denunciation
toady
a person who tries to please someone to gain an advantage
tome
a large and scholarly book
torpid
in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation
travesty
a composition that imitates or misrepresents a style
trenchant
having keenness and forcefulness and penetration in thought
trite
repeated too often; overfamiliar through overuse
truculent
defiantly aggressive, ready to fight; cruel
turpitude
a corrupt or depraved or degenerate act or practice
ubiquitous
being present everywhere at once
umbrage
a feeling of anger caused by being offended, resentment, offense
upbraid
express criticism towards
utilitarian
having a useful function
Venerable
respected because of age, distinguished
veracity
unwillingness to tell lies
vestige
an indication that something has been present
Vex
to confuse or annoy
vicissitude
a variation in circumstances or fortune
vilify
spread negative information about
virtuoso
someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
vitriolic
harsh, bitter, or malicious in tone
vituperate
spread negative information about
vociferous
conspicuously and offensively loud boisterous
wanton
a lewd or immoral person, undisciplined, lewd, lustful
wily
marked by skill in deception
winsome
charming in a childlike or naive way
yoke
join with stable gear, as two draft animals
Zenith
the point of culmination; peak
zephyr
a slight wind

 

 

Incorrect Use of Words

 

meme
an element of a culture or system of behaviour passed from one individual to another by imitation or other non-genetic means.
meme
an image, video, piece of text, etc., typically humorous in nature, that is copied and spread rapidly by Internet users, often with slight variations.
Paradigm

(para dime) a model of something, or a very clear and typical example of something

Literally

 

‘Literally’ means, “in a literal sense”, or “what I’m saying is not imagined, but truly happened as I’m saying it.

Incorrect use

“I literally died laughing,” or “He was so embarrassed his cheeks literally burned up,” are not correct.

 

Ironic

If something is ironic it's unexpected, often in an amusing way

 

Incorrect use

While irony is often understood to mean a coincidence or strange turn of events, that in itself doesn’t cover its full meaning.

 

While the concept of irony is extremely multi-layered, at its most simple it’s a way to use words to express the opposite of their literal meaning.

There’s also dramatic irony, situational irony, historical irony and others. so no one will think badly of you if you don’t use the word at all!

Irregardless

(instead of regardless) Irregardless is a nonstandard synonym for regardless, which means “without concern as to advice, warning, or hardship,” or “heedless.” Its nonstandard status is due to the double negative construction of the prefix ir- with the suffix -less. ... The bottom line is that irregardless is indeed a word, albeit a clunky one.

 

But despite what you might think, ‘irregardless’ isn’t a synonym! Because of it’s double negative (the prefix -ir means “not” and suffix -less means “without”) it means “not without regard”, which is actually the opposite of what its users intend.

 

Incorrect use While ‘irregardless’ appears in dictionaries, it’s listed as a nonstandard word. This means that although it technically exists, it shouldn’t be thrown about by people who’d like to learn and use English well.
regardless You might have heard people use ‘irregardless’ when they mean to say ‘regardless’. ‘Regardless’ means “without regard” or “despite something” (“He maxed out his credit card regardless of the consequences,”) and is perfectly acceptable.
Colonel

 

Tthis word (meaning a rank of officer in the army), you might think it’s pronounced co-lo-nel. And who could blame you? It’s not so simple, however, as it’s pronounced kernel (like a corn kernel!).

 

Lieutenant

 

In British English, the word is pronounced lefttenant (left tenant), whereas in the United States, you’ll hear loo-tenant. Both are correct its just the saying of it that confuses.

Nonplussed

 

In reality, ‘nonplussed’ means “bewildered” or “at a loss of what to think”.

Incorrect use Feeling a bit nonplussed after our brief trip through linguistic history? It’s certainly possible. A sneaky prefix is the culprit. Because the prefix -non means “not”, some people misuse ‘nonplussed’ as ‘unfazed’ or ‘uninterested’. Unfortunately, the word is so often used in both ways that, at least in written English, it’s often difficult to understand which meaning the writer intended.
Disinterested

 

Not influenced by considerations of personal advantage.

 

Someone who is disinterested is not biased and doesn’t take sides, whereas an uninterested person is not interested in something in the first place.

Uninterested

 

Imagine you’re in court. What kind of judge would you like on your case? A disinterested or uninterested judge? I hope you chose the former! While an uninterested judge would be yawning and flicking through their phone, a disinterested judge would be far more likely to hear all sides of your case and rule objectively.

Enormity

 

Means the great or extreme scale, seriousness, or extent of something perceived as bad or morally wrong.

 

‘Enormity’ usually means ‘extreme evil’ of the toe-curling, medieval history or ruthless dictator kind.

Incorrect use ‘Enormity’ is so close to ‘enormous’ that they must be synonyms. Right? Wrong! Therefore, the exceptionally commonly used expression “the enormity of the situation…” is incorrect. (Unless, in fact, you’re actually talking about an act of evil. Which we hope you aren’t!)
Unabashed

 

Means not embarrassed, disconcerted, or ashamed.

The negative version, unabashed, on the other hand, is used today and means “not embarrassed”.So next time you’re practicing your English, speak with unabashed enthusiasm!

Abash What’s that prefix doing on an unfamiliar word like “abash”? Well, while “abash” does exist (it means to embarrass or perplex), it hasn’t been widely used for centuries.
   
Vocabulary Explained https://www.vocabulary.com/lists/191545
   
Difficult Words https://www.ef.com/wwen/blog/language/10-most-difficult-words-in-english/

 

 

Thesaurus of words

References

uefap.vocabulary

Cambridge Dictionary

 

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steamer

During my Digital Media, Multimedia and some VET courses I got my students to work on The S.T.E.A.M.E.R book of knowledge, especially advanced students that complete tasks ahead of time, this was my fall back lessons for those clever or advanced students, they were asked to pick one of the areas of study and create a cover page, find some interesting facts and put their findings into a chapter of the book The book was 138 pages long at my retirement from teaching.

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STEAMER Stands for

Science, Technology, English, Arts, Mathematics, Enivironment and Religion

resources

For those students that presented work on English we gathered a lot of useful reference information that became a STUDENT's COMPENDIUM here are some samples of student work

Explanation for Compendium
File Includes
ANU - Australian National University
An acronym is a pronounceable word formed from the first letter (or first few letters) of each word in a phrase or title. Sometimes, the newly combined letters create a new word that becomes a part of everyday language. An example of this is the acronym radar.
Adjectives are words that describe or modify other words * Priest = Sacerdotal
Apes - gibber, Camel live in Australia, Sahara & Arabia names = Bull - is called a heifer
Opposites = Absent - present
SC005_Big_Words for small
Anger - Dudgeon * bold - Audacious
A partner in crime - accomplice
A passage between the pews in a church - Aisle
SC007_Commonly_confused_words
Council, an administrative or advisory body, do not confuse with counsel, advice or guidance. Homonyms
Aberdeen - The Granite City The Torrid Zone has the hottest climate Zinc - Mexico, U.S.A., Spain
SC013 Death Words pertaining to Occurring after death - posthumous
SC009_Diminutives
Cask - casket   
SC010_Famous
Matthew Flinders -discovered Bass Strait. * Lord Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts in 1908
SC011_Figurative_Expressions
Aloof -To keep to oneself and not mix with others.
SC012_Gender
Actor - Actress
SC013_Geography The Circumference of the earth is approxinmately 24,800 miles.
SC014_Gods War - Mars
SC015_Government Australian Government
SC016_Grammar Explains various uses of nouns verbs etc.
SC017_Human_Relationships THE ART OF LIVING - Consideration for the feelings of others
SC018_Inventions Clock (pendulum) - Christian Huygens
SC019_Kings_Queens of UK EGBERT 827 - 839
SC020_Literary A book in which the events of each day are recorded - Diary
SC021_Marriage A hater of marriage - misogamist
SC022_Medical A disease confined to a particular district or place - endemic
SC044_Metaphors Metaphor is a figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated
SC023_Miscellaneous All Fools' Day - 1st April - Aussie slang - sounds that things make etc.
SC024_Nouns sit - seat (when to use Nouns)
SC025_Names Boys & Girls names explained
SC026_Nature A four-footed animal - quadruped
SC027_Negatives That which cannot be pierced or penetrated - impenetrable
SC028_Numbers A number of fish taken in a net - catch, haul
SC029_Opposites Unable to read - il-literate
SC030_Patron Saints St. George of England, St. Andrew of Scotland
SC031_Places A place where fishes are kept - aquarium
SC032_Possessive_Case Is the case which denotes the owner or possessor
SC045_Phobias Noctiphobia - Fear of the night
SC033_Professions The commander of a fleet - Admiral
SC034_Similes Archates - a good friend * Belt = to hit below the belt
SC035_Proverbs A bad beginning makes a good ending.
SC048_Sayings as a drowned rat. - as ancient as the sun—as the stars.
SC036_Science_and_Arts An instrument for detecting earthquakes - seismograph
SC037_Scientific_Terms The science of land management - agronomics
SC038_Seven_Wonders The Pyramids of Egypt
SC039_Synonyms abandon....... desert, forsake, leave.
SC040_War Nations carrying on warfare - belligerents
SC041_Weddings 7th year—Copper or Brass
SC042_Words_to_Verbs strong - strengthen
SC043_Other Any other items that might be of interest
SC044_Metaphors Metaphor is a figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated
SC045_Phobias Noctiphobia - Fear of the night
SC046_Death
Occurring after death - posthumous
SC047_Thesaurus

Thesaurus - abandon = abandoned, abandoning, abandonment, abandons affluent =having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value,words explained and incorrect use of words

SC048_Sayings as afraid as a grasshopper.
SC049_UrbanMyths The floor was dirt.  Only the wealthy had something other than dirt, hence the saying "dirt poor." 

Please note there are some excellent links to assist with these pages

see at the end for the links for further information. 

Applied Information Technology * AITStage1 * AITStage2 * AITStage3 * Cert II Business * Cert II Information Technology * Multimedia

Subjects * Art * Computing * English * Geography * Hass * History * Mathematics

Miscellaneous * Acronyms * Accreditation * ICT_Homework * Naplan * Lessons * Quizzes * Relief Lessons * Proverbs * Sayings * Student Compendium

Exams & Tests * Student Survival Kit * Web quests * Worksheets * Home Page * Peters Site * Soccer

Abbreviations divider Acronyms divider Animals divider Antonymns divider Big Words for Small Words divider Characteristics divider Church divider Countries Cities

divider Death divider Diminutives divider Famous divider Figurative Expressions divider Gender divider Geographical divider Gods and Goddesses divider Government divider Grammar and Syntaxdivider  Human Relationships divider Inventions divider Kings and Queens divider Literary Sentences divider Marriage divider Medicaldivider Metaphors divider Miscellaneous divider Nouns divider Names divider Nature divider Negatives divider Numbers divider Opposites divider Patron Saints divider Places divider Possessive Case divider Phobiasdivider Professions divider Proverbs divider Science & Arts divider Scientific Termsdivider Seven Wonders divider Similies dividerThesaurus divider Synonyms divider War Words divider Wedding divider Words to Verbs divider Other divider Home

 

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Page last updated 2nd March 2020