Government of Australia

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is a federal democratic administrative authority of Australia. Australia’s system of government reflects both British and North American influences. Australia is governed by both the federal government and the state and territory governments. Queen Elizabeth II is Australia’s head of state under a constitutional monarchy. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth.



Governor-General Of The Government Of Australia

The Governor-General, representing the Monarch of Australia, is currently Queen Elizabeth II, in Australia. Governor General is appointed by the Queen, acting upon advice from the Prime Minister. The Governor-General is mandated with numerous head-of-state duties under the Constitution. He is the Commander-in-Chief of the country’s defense forces. The Governor-General gives assent to laws passed by Parliament and appoints high commissioners, ambassadors, federal judges, and ministers. The Governor-General also issues writs for elections, sets up royal commissions of inquiry, awards Australian honors, opens Parliament and welcomes visiting the head of states. The Governor-General mainly acts on advice from ministers, but he may forego this advice to utilize his/her reserve powers. These powers may include dismissing the Prime Minister if he acts unlawfully or in the event of Parliament’s loss of confidence, appointing the Prime Minister, refusal to dissolve the House of Representatives against the advice of the Prime Minister. The incumbent Governor General is Sir Peter Cosgrove who took office on March 28, 2014.

Federal Government Of Australia

The Federal government is mandated with specific areas of governance by the Constitution. These areas are defense, foreign matters, taxation, and postal and telecommunication services. The Federal government is comprised of the three arms of government, namely Legislature, Judiciary and Executive.


Legislature - The federal legislature is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state and territory elect one member to the House of Representatives and 12 members from the states, and two from the territories are elected to the Senate. The legislature passes legislation, debates on matters concerning public policy and approves or disapproves government’s proposals on taxation and expenditure.

Judiciary - The High Court and Federal Courts make up the federal judicature. The High Court is mandated to interpret the Constitution, resolve legal disputes between the House of Representatives and Senate and to listen to Appeals from lower courts

Executive - Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The Prime Minister leads the party with the majority members in the government. The Prime Minister appoints Ministers, who takes care of their assigned departments. The Executive is in charge of policy making.

State Government Of Australia

The Commonwealth of Australia has six states, namely Victoria, Western Australia, New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, and Queensland. Each of these states has their own constitution, which provides for the legislature, judiciary, and executive divisions. Each state government self-governs on matters not controlled by the federal government and is headed by the Premier.

Territory Government Of Australia

Territories are regions not claimed by any of the states. Three territories have acquired a limited right to self-governance from the federal government. These territories are Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory, and Norfolk Island. The rest of the territories are governed by the Commonwealth Law. These territories are Christmas Island, Jervis Bay Territory, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Australian Antarctic Territory, and Territory of Heard Island and Mcdonald Islands.

Local Governments

Local Governments or Local Council operate under the state or territory governments. The local government oversees numerous concerns such as waste collection and management, public recreation facilities, community safety, community health services, town planning, and maintenance of physical infrastructure.



The British Empire or the British Commonwealth of Nations, of which we form a part, is the greatest Empire the world has ever seen.

It consists of:

The United Kingdom which comprises (a) Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland); (b) Northern Ireland; (c) The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.

The Self-Governing Dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Ceylon and Ghana. (India and Pakistan are in the unique position of being Republics within the Commonwealth.)

The Dominions are territories within the British Empire which enjoy full self-government or Dominion Status. In the words of the Balfour Declaration—The Dominions are "autonomous communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate, one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations."

(3)            Crown Colonies. These are the non-self-governing territories of the British Empire. They are administered by Governors appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies. In the more advanced Crown Colonies the Governor is assisted by an Executive Council and a Legis­lative Council which may be wholly or partly elected and/
or wholly or partly nominated.



The Government of the United Kingdom is vested in the Queen, and the Two Houses of Parliament—The House of Lords and the House of Commons.


The Queen: The Executive function of the Queen or Crown is really performed by the Ministry—the body of Ministers who act in the Queen's name. However, before a Bill becomes law it has to receive the Queen's approval or Royal Assent as it is called. By custom or convention once a Bill has passed through both Houses of Parliament the Queen never refuses to assent to it. The last occasion on which a Sovereign exercised the Veto was in 1707 when Queen Anne refused to assent to the Scotch Militia Bill.


The House of Lords:

The House of Lords or Upper House is comprised of:

The Lords Spiritual. These are the Archbishop of Canter­bury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester and twenty-one Senior Bishops. There are 26 Lords Spiritual.

The Lords Temporal, who comprise:

(a) English Peers; (b) Peers of Great Britain; (c) Peers of the United Kingdom; (d) Sixteen Scottish Representative Peers; (e) Twenty-eight Irish Peers elected for life.

(c)            Lords of Appeal in Ordinary: Seven Lords of Appeal in
ordinary, or Law Lords who are appointed to serve as
permanent Judges in the House of Lords Judicial Committee,
which is the Highest Appeal Court in the British Empire.


There are more than 800 members in the House of Lords. They are graded thus—Dukes, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons.


Since 1911 the House of Lords has no power to stop a Money Bill passed by the House of Commons, and since 1949 it has only a suspensive veto of one year over other Bills. In other words the Lords can delay any measure (other than a Money Bill) passed by the House of

Commons from becoming law for a period of one year.


The House of Commons is the third and most important Estate of the Realm. It is referred to as the Lower House although the House of Commons stands on the same floor as the House of Lords in the Parliament Buildings.


The members of the House of Commons are all elected on an almost universal franchise. Every person can exercise the vote (provided he or she is not legally disqualified) so long as that person is a British Subject who has attained the age of twenty-one, and has the necessary residence or business qualification.


The House of Commons consists at present of 630 members. These members are returned to Parliament as representatives of either Boroughs, or Counties.


Party Government. The real Government of Great Britain, however, is the party which has a majority in the House of Commons. There are three main Parties in Parliament—the Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Party—and the Government is named after the Party which gains the most seats at a General Election. The present Government (in 1957) is the Conservative Government.


The Prime Minister. As soon as the results of a General Election have been declared Her Majesty sends for the leader of the Party which has a majority in the House of Commons and asks him to form a Government. This Party Leader henceforth becomes the Prime Minister.


The Ministry and Cabinet. The Prime Minister then selects about fifty or sixty persons from his own Party who are members of one or other of the Houses of Parliament and appoints them as Heads of the Chief Departments of State. The Queen makes these Ministers of State Privy Councillors if they are not so already, and they form what is known as the Ministry.


From this large body of Ministers the Prime Minister selects a small group representing the ablest and perhaps the most experienced members, and these, with himself as head, form the Cabinet. The Cabinet usually consists of between 20 and 22 members.

The following Ministers are usually in the Cabinet. The Lord


Chancellor, the First Lord of the Treasury, the eight Secretaries of State, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Lord President of the Privy Council.


The history of the Cabinet System is interesting.

From earliest times the Sovereigns of England had a body of trusted advisers who became known as PRIVY COUNCILLORS. When King Charles II came to the throne he found this large body of Privy Councilors too unwieldy. As he did not care to discuss important matters of state with so many Councilors he selected a few of his favourites from among them as his closest advisers and would consult them before presenting any matter to the Privy Council. These used to meet in the King's Cabinet, hence the name CABINET.

This action of the King was very unpopular and the Cabinet was contemptuously referred to as the CABAL, a word formed from the initial letters of the surnames of the King's favourites—Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, Lauderdale. Nevertheless the Cabinet system continued to grow.

George I and George II were Germans who succeeded to the throne of England. As they could not speak English they ceased to attend Cabinet Meetings and delegated the minister who commanded the respect of his colleagues to preside at the Cabinet Meetings in the King's stead. This PRIME MINISTER afterwards reported the decisions of the Cabinet to the King. From that time the Sovereign has never presided at a Cabinet Meeting and it has now become an established custom that he should not do so.


Government Pertaining to
Government of the people, for the people and by the people democracy
Government by a Sovereign of uncontrolled authority autocracy, despotism
Government by the nobility aristocracy
Government by departments of state bureaucracy
Government by a few oligarchy
Government by the wealthy plutocracy
Government by priests or ecclesiastics hierarchy, hagiarchy, hagiocracy
Government by divine guidance theocracy
Government of the church by bishops episcopacy
Government by a military class statocracy
Government by the worst citizens kakistocracy
The right of self government autonomy
The science of government politics
Sweeping governmental changes revolution

To decide a political question by the direct vote of the whole electorate referendum
The period between two reigns interregnum

One who governs a kingdom during the infancy, absence, or disability of the sovereign regent
The wife or husband of a king or queen consort
An official numbering of the population census
Facts and figures statistics
Government alphabetical
Government by the nobility aristocracy
Government by a Sovereign of uncontrolled authority autocracy, despotism
The right of self government autonomy
Government by departments of state bureaucracy
An official numbering of the population census
The wife or husband of a king or queen consort
Government of the people, for the people and by the people democracy
Government of the church by bishops episcopacy
Government by priests or ecclesiastics hierarchy, hagiarchy, hagiocracy
The period between two reigns interregnum

Government by the worst citizens kakistocracy
Government by a few oligarchy
Government by the wealthy plutocracy
The science of government politics
To decide a political question by the direct vote of the whole electorate referendum
One who governs a kingdom during the infancy, absence, or disability of the sovereign regent
Sweeping governmental changes revolution

Facts and figures statistics
Government by a military class statocracy
Government by divine guidance theocracy


Civics has been defined as the science of citizenship and municipal government. The Study of Civics in Schools is intended to help children to become " upright and useful members of the community in which they live, and worthy sons and daughters of the country to which they belong."


1. This is an important element of good citizenship. This calls for (a) consideration for the feelings of others; (b) respect for the other person's point of view; (c) co-operation.

(a) Consideration for the feelings of others

Jesus puts it this way: " Do unto others as you would have others do unto you." Think how much better our society would be if we all tried to be


(i) Less selfish;


(ii) Conscious of the dignity of human personality;


(iii) Appreciative of the efforts of other people;


(iv) More humane;


(v) Obedient and respectful to those in authority over us;


(vi) Better users of the Queen's Highway.


So many of us want everything for ourselves and our families. Let us remember that other people have as much right to happiness and the good things of this world as we. We should all try to bear one another s burdens by acts of helpfulness when the need arises.

In the eyes of God all men are equal. Every person, regardless of his station in life has a dignity and importance far greater than the lower animals. He or she is a human being and should be treated as such.

All of us are proud of the things we do. Let us cultivate a sense of gratitude—the habit of giving due praise and thanks to people for what they do for us, or what they do for others because of us. Little gifts of flowers, Birthday or Christmas Cards bring happiness both to the donor and the recipient.

Also we must not be too ready to blame others, for we all make mistakes.

We must try to avoid the bullying, aggressive, scowling and critical attitude in our relations with our friends or subordinates.

We must not be insubordinate to our superiors. Insubordination is distasteful to any employer. It antagonises him and begets retaliation and victimisation. In the long run it is the employee who suffers.

If we only gave a thought to the untold misery which road accidents bring to the homes of so many families, we would all develop a better road sense and observe the Highway Code.

(b)            Respect for the other person's point of view

This would be a dull and monotonous world if we all thought alike. It is said that variety is the spice of life. None of us has a monopoly of brains or ideas. We must therefore learn to be tolerant of the views and opinions of others. Don't do all the talking. Listen to what the other persons have to say even if their view on a question is not the same as yours. There may be a lot in what they have to say.

(c)            Co-operation

It requires little thought to realise that we have to depend on each other at every turn of our lives. Production under the modern system is based on " division of labour " or " special-station," whereby several kinds of workers have to co-operate to turn out one finished manufactured article. Similarly no one today could be entirely self-sufficient in every respect. Every person has to depend on the labour of other people for certain commodities which he cannot produce himself. Thus all workers are dependent on other workers whether they be agricultural, manual, factory, technical, clerical, administrative or professional workers.


Service to the Community

This is one of the noblest duties of the citizen. A number of voluntary organisations such as the Red Cross Society, Child Welfare League, Boy Scout Movement, Girl Guide Movement, Literary and Cultural Clubs etc. offer innumerable opportunities for people to render service to the community. Incidentally, these organisations help to develop in their members the qualities of leadership and a sense of responsibility, and aim to produce the kind of citizen our country needs at the present time.

The Ten core Life Skills as laid down by

WHO (World Health Organisation) are:


There are many such skills, but core life skills include the ability to:



Critical thinking.

Creative thinking.

Decision making.

Problem Solving.

Effective communication.

Interpersonal relationship.


Templates to use  
For an Essay use this template Essay Template
For a task use this template Task Plan Template


1. More than ten people a year are killed by vending machines.
2. Hippo milk is pink.
3. Women have a better sense of smell than men.
4. The human brain has the capacity to store everything that you experience.

5. Ice Cream is chinese food!

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Subjects * Art * Computing * English * Geography * Hass * History * Mathematics

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250 soccer coaching grids with explanation for each grid, you can now download them individually or use the .zip folders,


The book covers:- attacking, defending, goal keeping, midfield play, shooting, passing, tackling and there are complete training sets for Junior, Youth and Girls, Men & Ladies teams and Semi-Professional teams with 20 weeks of training in each set.

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