Human Relations



The Art of Living

Service to the Community

The five Senses

The Four Elements

The Dead Languages


Cardinal Points

Cardinal Numbers

Cardinal Virtues

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Human Relations


1. This is an important element of good citizenship. This calls for (a) consideration for the feelings of others; (b) respect for the other person's point of view; (c) co-operation.

(a) Consideration for the feelings of others

Jesus puts it this way: " Do unto others as you would have others do unto you." Think how much better our society would be if we all tried to be


(i) Less selfish;


(ii) Conscious of the dignity of human personality;


(iii) Appreciative of the efforts of other people;


(iv) More humane;


(v) Obedient and respectful to those in authority over us;


(vi) Better users of the Queen's Highway.


So many of us want everything for ourselves and our families. Let us remember that other people have as much right to happiness and the good things of this world as we. We should all try to bear one another s burdens by acts of helpfulness when the need arises.

In the eyes of God all men are equal. Every person, regardless of his station in life has a dignity and importance far greater than the lower animals. He or she is a human being and should be treated as such.

All of us are proud of the things we do. Let us cultivate a sense of gratitude—the habit of giving due praise and thanks to people for what they do for us, or what they do for others because of us. Little gifts of flowers, Birthday or Christmas Cards bring happiness both to the donor and the recipient.

Also we must not be too ready to blame others, for we all make mistakes.

We must try to avoid the bullying, aggressive, scowling and critical attitude in our relations with our friends or subordinates.

We must not be insubordinate to our superiors. Insubordination is distasteful to any employer. It antagonises him and begets retaliation and victimisation. In the long run it is the employee who suffers.

If we only gave a thought to the untold misery which road accidents bring to the homes of so many families, we would all develop a better road sense and observe the Highway Code.

(b)            Respect for the other person's point of view

This would be a dull and monotonous world if we all thought alike. It is said that variety is the spice of life. None of us has a monopoly of brains or ideas. We must therefore learn to be tolerant of the views and opinions of others. Don't do all the talking. Listen to what the other persons have to say even if their view on a question is not the same as yours. There may be a lot in what they have to say.

(c)            Co-operation

It requires little thought to realise that we have to depend on each other at every turn of our lives. Production under the modern system is based on " division of labour " or " special-station," whereby several kinds of workers have to co-operate to turn out one finished manufactured article. Similarly no one today could be entirely self-sufficient in every respect. Every person has to depend on the labour of other people for certain commodities which he cannot produce himself. Thus all workers are dependent on other workers whether they be agricultural, manual, factory, technical, clerical, administrative or professional workers.


Service to the Community

This is one of the noblest duties of the citizen. A number of voluntary organisations such as the Red Cross Society, Child Welfare League, Boy Scout Movement, Girl Guide Movement, Literary and Cultural Clubs etc. offer innumerable opportunities for people to render service to the community. Incidentally, these organisations help to develop in their members the qualities of leadership and a sense of responsibility, and aim to produce the kind of citizen our country needs at the present time.

The five Senses or gateways of knowledge are:-

1. Seeing
2. Hearing
hearing, sound
3. Feeling
4. Smelling
5. Tasting


Our senses allow us to learn, to protect ourselves, to enjoy our world. Can you imagine what it might be like to live your life without any of your senses?

The senses usually work together to give us a clear picture of the things around us.

If one sense is not working due to an accident or illness, then other senses will take over or become stronger to make up for the missing sense.

1 Sight

Our sense of sight is all dependent upon our eyes. A lens at the front of the eyeball helps to focus images onto the retina at the back of the eye. The retina is covered with two types of light sensitive cells the cones and the rods. The cones allow us to see color and the rods allow us to see better at night and also aid us in our peripheral vision. All of this information is sent to the brain along the optic nerve.


The images sent are actually upside down and our brain makes sense of what it receives by turning the image right side up. The brain also uses the images from two eyes to create a 3D(three dimensional) image. This allows us to perceive depth.

Some people are not able to tell red colors from green colors. This is called color blindness. Others, through injury or other conditions, have little to no sight at all.


2. Hearing

Our ears, which help us hear, are made of two separate parts: theouter ear and the inner ear. The outer ear is the part that others see. It works like a cup to catch sound as it travels past our heads. This part is made ofcartilage and skin.From here, sound travels to the tympanic membrane and then onto the inner ear via the three smallest bones in your body. The inner ear is also called the cochlea and is a spiral shaped tube which translates vibrations into sound and sends that message to the brain through the auditory nerve. The brain uses the sounds from both the left and the right ear to determine distance and direction of sounds.

Some people who are unable to hear rely on sign language for communication. This is done by using their hands and body language to communicate with others.


3. Touch


The sense of touch is spread through the whole body. Nerve endings in the skin and in other parts of the body send information to the brain. There are four kinds of touch sensations that can be identified: cold, heat, contact, and pain. Hair on the skin increase the sensitivity and can act as an early warning system for the body. The finger tips have a greater concentration of nerve endings.


People who are blind can use their sense of touch to read Braille which is a kind of writing that uses a series of bumps to represent different letters of the alphabet.

Our skin is the largest organ in our body and contains the most nerve endings.



Our nose is the organ that we use to smell. The inside of the nose is lined with something called the mucous membranes. These membranes have smell receptors connected a special nerve, called the olfactory nerve. Smells are made of fumes of various substances. The smell receptors react with the molecules of these fumes and then send these messages to the brain. Our sense of smell is capable of identifying seven types of sensations. These are put into these categories: camphor, musk, flower, mint, ether, acrid, or putrid. The sense of smell is sometimes lost for a short time when a person has a cold. Dogs have a more sensitive sense of smell than man.


In addition to being the organ for smell, the nose also cleans the air we breathe and impacts the sound of our voice. Try plugging your nose while you talk. Smell is also an aide in the ability to taste.


5. Taste


Our sense of taste comes from the taste buds on our tongue. These buds are also called papillae (say: puh-pih-lee). But, the sense of smell also affects our taste.

The tongue is only able to taste four separate flavors: salty, sweet, sour and bitter. But, you might ask, how come different sweet foods taste different if there are only four flavors? That's because your favorite candy might be a combination of sweet and salty. And the chips in your chocolate chip cookie could be a combination of sweet and bitter. Everything you taste is one or more combinations of these four flavors.


Not only can your tongue taste, but it also picks up texture and temperature in your food like creamy, crunchy, hot or dry.

Your tongue is also one of the strongest muscles in your body and is able to heal from injury more quickly than other parts of your body. We also need our tongue to produce certain sounds when we speak.




The Art of Living

Service to the Community

The five Senses

The Four Elements

The Dead Languages


Cardinal Points

Cardinal Numbers

Cardinal Virtues

Back to Top



The Four Elements {Ancient) are


Fire is both hot and dry.


Water is both cold and wet.


Air is both hot and wet (for air is like vapor).


Earth is both cold and dry.
Aristotle added a fifth element, aether, as the quintessence, reasoning that whereas fire, earth, air, and water were earthly and corruptible, since no changes had been perceived in the heavenly regions, the stars cannot be made out of any of the four elements but must be made of a different, unchangeable.


According to ancient and medieval science, aether, also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. Wikipedia


The Dead Languages are

Ancient Greek and Latin.


The Three Professions are




The Lake Poets are

Coleridge, Southey, Wordsworth.

The Latin Races are


French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians.

The Dead Languages are




A Decade is a period of ten years.
A Generation—about thirty years.
A Century—one hundred years.
A Millenium—one thousand years.



Cardinal Numbers are
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc.
Ordinal Numbers are
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th etc.
Cardinal Points are
North, South, East, West.



Cardinal Signs are
Cardinal Virtues are
(a) Prudence
or (b)


The Art of Living

Service to the Community

The five Senses

The Four Elements

The Dead Languages


Cardinal Points

Cardinal Numbers

Cardinal Virtues

Back to Top



Explanation for Student Compendium
File Includes
A shortened form of a word or phrase.
ANU - Australian National University
An acronym is a pronounceable word formed from the first letter (or first few letters) of each word in a phrase or title. Sometimes, the newly combined letters create a new word that becomes a part of everyday language. An example of this is the acronym radar. Also includes Mnemonics
a word naming an attribute of a noun, such as sweet, red, or technical. Adjectives are words that describe or modify other words * Priest = Sacerdotal

Types of animals, Sounds the make, Where do they live, Collective names of animals

Apes - gibber, Camel live in Australia, Sahara & Arabia, names = Bull - is called a heifer

a word opposite in meaning to another (e.g. bad - good ).

Opposites = Absent - present

Big_Words for small
Small word with big word alternative
Anger - Dudgeon * bold - Audacious

A feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place, or thing and serving to identify them

A partner in crime - accomplice

Words pertaining to the church

A passage between the pews in a church - Aisle

Similar sounding words with different meanings also Homonyms

Council, an administrative or advisory body, do not confuse with counsel, advice or guidance.

All about communication see also A History of Communication
All computer terms (ASCII, Binary, Unicode)

Names given to certain towns or countries includes facts about climate

Aberdeen - The Granite City The Torrid Zone has the hottest climate Zinc - Mexico, U.S.A., Spain

Words pertaining to death

Occurring after death - posthumous

A diminutive person is short and small. A diminutive wordis a "cute" version of a word or name: for example, "duckling" is a diminutive of "duck" and Billy is a diminutive form of the name William

Cask - casket   

Famous world discoveries of countries continents, includes Australian discoverers

Matthew Flinders -discovered Bass Strait. * Lord Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts in 1908

Explanation of a word, words in literal expressions denote what they mean according to common or dictionary usage

Aloof -To keep to oneself and not mix with others.

Gender list of male female

Actor - Actress

Countries of the world and Geographical facts

The Circumference of the earth is approxinmately 24,800 miles.

List of gods and goddesses

War - Mars

Australian and UK government with words denoting government

Australian Government

Explains grammar syntax and verbs adjectives nouns etc.

Explains various uses of nouns verbs etc.

The art of living together includes senses, elements, cardinal numbers, cardinal virtues

THE ART OF LIVING - Consideration for the feelings of others

Alphabetical list of the most important inventions

Clock (pendulum) - Christian Huygens

List of kings and queens of Britain with facts and information

EGBERT 827 - 839

Practical list of  words explained in a sentence or phrase

A book in which the events of each day are recorded - Diary

Words pertaining to marriage included anniversary gifts

A hater of marriage - misogamist

Medical terms in use today

A disease confined to a particular district or place - endemic

Metaphor is a figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated

Sounds that things make, description of various venues or habitats, special calendar dates, Aussie slang words, Mnemonics

All Fools' Day - 1st April - Aussie slang - sounds that things make etc.

Names of persons or things, occupations, and a description of word meanings i.e. Terrestrial = Earth

Various names explained Bird of night - Owl

Words connected to nature

A four-footed animal - quadruped

a word or statement that expresses denial, disagreement, or refusal

That which cannot be pierced or penetrated - impenetrable

Explanation of nouns, COMMON Nouns, PROPER Nouns, COLLECTIVE  Nouns and ABSTRACT Nouns.

sit - seat (when to use Nouns)

Numbers of animals things i.e. A number of Cattle = herd

A number of fish taken in a net - catch, haul

a person or thing that is totally different from or the reverse of someone or something else.

Unable to read - il-literate

Special days, Aussies slang and any other items not covered in this list

Any other items that might be of interest

List of Patron Saints

St. George of England, St. Andrew of Scotland

Noctiphobia - Fear of the night

A list of places A place where bees are kept = apiary

A place where fishes are kept - aquarium

The case which is used to show possession is called the possessive case or genitive case. In case of nouns, an apostrophe is used to show it.

Is the case which denotes the owner or possessor

All Prefixes

List of various professions

The commander of a fleet - Admiral

Famous proverbs A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

A bad beginning makes a good ending.

Serious Quotes and some Witty funny one liners

Someone has glued my pack of cards together...I cannot deal with it!

Famous sayings

as a drowned rat. - as ancient as the sun—as the stars.

List of words used in Science or Art

An instrument for detecting earthquakes - seismograph

Explanation of scientific items like barometer

The science of land management - agronomics

The seven wonders of the ancient world with explanations

The Pyramids of Egypt

Words to use as a Simile which is a phrase that describes one thing in terms of another.  A simile usually begins with like or as.

Archates - a good friend * Belt = to hit below the belt

List of words or phrases that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another 

abandon....... desert, forsake, leave.

Understanding words, Incorrect Use of Words,

Thesaurus of Words
Thesaurus - abandon = abandoned, abandoning, abandonment, abandons affluent =having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value,words explained and incorrect use of words

The floor was dirt.  Only the wealthy had something other than dirt, hence the saying "dirt poor." 

Words used in war

Nations carrying on warfare - belligerents

Anniversary dates and wedding information

Words shown in noun or verb

strong - strengthen

Signs of the Zodiac

Please note there are some excellent links to assist with these pages

see at the end for the links for further information. 

Abbreviations divider Acronyms divider Animals divider Antonymns divider Big Words for Small Words divider Characteristics divider Church divider Countries Cities

divider Communication divider Death divider Diminutives divider Famous divider Figurative Expressions divider Gender divider Geographical divider Gods and Goddesses divider Government divider Grammar and Syntaxdivider  Human Relationships divider Inventions divider Kings and Queens divider Literary Sentences divider Marriage divider Medicaldivider Metaphors divider Miscellaneous divider Nouns divider Names divider Nature divider Negatives divider Numbers divider Opposites divider Patron Saints divider Places divider Possessive Case divider Phobiasdivider Professions divider Proverbs divider Prefixes divider Science & Arts divider Scientific Termsdivider Seven Wonders divider Similies divider Synonyms divider War Words divider Wedding divider Words to Verbs divider Other divider Home



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